1. What other terms is sonograpghy known by?
    • Ultrasound
    • Diagnostic Medical Sonography
    • Ultrasonography
    • Vascular Sonography
    • Echocardiography
  2. What is sonography and how it is employed?
    Procedure that uses nonionizing, high-frequency sound waves to generate an image of a particular structure of the body. It is employed for the visualization of soft tissue interfaces of homogeneous fluid-filled or solid organs, tumor masses, and muscles. It can also be used in venous studies calculating blood flow velocities. There are no known harmful effects and is considered safe.
  3. What are the advantages of sonography over other
    • Mobile
    • Versatile
    • More cost effective
  4. What are ultrasound transducers? What are some examples?
    • Special scanning devices.
    • Transvaginal
    • Transrectal
    • Transesophageal
  5. What are some special requirements of sonographers?
    • Must have detail knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and pathology.
    • Must understand anatomy as it relates to sectional, coronal, and oblique planes.
    • Must evaluate each patient to determine specific imaging requirements
  6. In regard to physical principles, what is ultrasound?
    • The transmission of high frequency mechanical vibrations
    • greater than 20 kHz through a medium.
  7. What is the frequency spectrum for diagnostic
    1-10 MHz
  8. What is the piezoelectric effect?
    Conversion of mechanical pressure to electrical voltage and vice versa.
  9. How may ultrasound waves be affected at interfaces between different media?
    • Focused
    • Refracted
    • Reflected
    • Scattered
  10. What determines the velocity of sound in a medium?
    Density and elastic properties of the medium.
  11. Is there a difference in velocity of sound between various media in the body?
    Yes. Velocity differs greatly between bone, air, and soft tissue but little between adjacent soft tissues.
  12. What impedes or interferes with the transmission of sound?
    Air or gas-filled structures
  13. What are the primary indications for these types of sonography exams:
    A. Abdomen and retroperitoneum
    B. Superficial structures
    C. Neonatal neurosonography
    • Abdomen/retroperitoneum – abscesses, hematomas, cysts, tumors, stones
    • Superficial structures – tumors
    • Neonatal neurosonography – evaluate intracranial damage during delivery
  14. During an obstetric exam, when can the embryo, heartbeat, and placenta normally be visualized? When can detailed anatomy be seen?
    • 5 week
    • Second trimester
  15. What are Vascular exams are used to detect?
    • Plaque formation
    • Thrombus
    • Obstruction
    • Stenosis
  16. What is the most commonly used term for cardiac
    ultrasound exams?
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