A/p World Ch. 16, 17, 18.txt

  1. What was the Catholic Church benifitting from?
    European Prospersity.
  2. What did Pope Leo X raise?
    Money authorizing sales of indulgence
  3. What is indulgence?
    • anything not Christian
    • (sins)
  4. Who was Martin Luther?
    German monk who challenged the pope on indulgences
  5. Salvation can be done on what?
    Faith alone
  6. What did John Calvin believe in?
    • Salvation is God’s gift
    • predestined
    • Christian congregations should be
    • self-governing
    • Stress simplicity in life and worship
  7. What is protestation reformation?
    • Germans
    • who
    • dis-liked Italian-dominated Catholic
    • Church
    • Peasants and urban workers
  8. Catholic Reformation
    • Council of Trent
    • Jusuits
  9. What was traditional thinking?
    Folk traditions

    Judeo-Christian beliefs

    • Natural events caused by supernatural
    • causes
  10. Scientific revolution?
    • •European
    • intellectuals derived understanding from Greek and Romans
  11. Does the Church aprove of this theory?
    No. But print beats religion.
  12. Isaac Newton
    • Laws of Gravity.
    • Religious, but scientist.
  13. Enlightenment?
    • Good time period.
    • •Opposition
    • of this period
    • –“Dictators”
    • –Clergymen
    • –“Absolutist”
  14. What is Enlightenment?
    • Intellectual movement that will influence
    • social behavior and institutions that will be governed (controlled) by
    • scientific laws. Printing press helped spread it
  15. Joint– Stock companies?
    • Merchants and Government forming a
    • partnership to become more profitable
    • Emergence of stock exchange will occur
  16. Impact of joint - stock?
    • Trade and international affairs
    • Anglo-Dutch wars of the 17th century
    • The Navy battles w/ England
    • 1-1-1
  17. How was land important?
    • Bourgeois class will gain more land.
    • Land is power, so people will marry into noble familes to gain power.
  18. High consumption of wood
    • Deforestation
    • Cooking, ships, home, industry, heating,
    • Navy, etc
  19. How was women's status gained?
    Through their hudsband.
  20. When did upper class marry?
    Late, because of education.
  21. What is the bourgieos class?
    • Emphasized schools
    • Choose a profession or trade
  22. Who is Charles of Burgundy?
    • The Ottomans at Vienna in 1529
    • But unable to unify all his territories
    • Also,known as Charles I of Spain
  23. Germany rebels against Charles, why?
    Catholic and spoke Italian
  24. How was the power split after this?
    • Spain will go to Philip (his son)
    • Weakened Holy Roman Empire will go to
    • Ferdinand (his brother)
  25. Who are friends?
    England, France, and Spain
  26. What happened when England became a power?
    • Collecting
    • taxes directly
    • Created
    • a central bank
    • 1650
    • used naval power to break down the Dutch
  27. How were the French's taxes?
    Streamlined taxes.
  28. What is the Columbian exchange?
    The exchange of animals, peoples, and plants from new and Old World
  29. What is the impact of the new people?
    • Europeans
    • and African slaves devastated indigenous populations
    • Resistance
    • to disease, settlements, and technology
    • weakens “American resistance”
  30. What disease spread to the new world?
    Syphilis and maybe yellow fever?
  31. •List two positives and negatives of the exchange
    Lots of disease was spread, but so was culture and other plants, animals and such.
  32. What is the council of indies in Spain?
    • If a little town wanted to do something, they had to ask their leader, if their leader couldn't give an answer, they'd have to go to the Council of Indies, if the Council of Indies couldn't get an answer, they'd have to go all the way back to Spain.
  33. What was wrong with the Council of Indies?
    It took way too long to get problems fixed if it had to go all the way to Spain.
  34. What was the govermnemt structure?
    • Highly developed – Must be from Spain =
    • at first Bureaucracies
    • No political experimentation
    • Slow local economies
  35. What was the church like?
    • Transferring the European language
    • Culture will spread
    • Christian beliefs – convert
    • Dual belief system would occur
  36. How did the Church have problems?
    • Blending the relegion of the new people, and the olds...didn't go over so well.
    • New people will win tho.
  37. Colonial Economies?
    • Latin
    • America
    • silver mines in Peru/Mexico
    • Sugar plantations in Brazil
  38. What will dependency of Spain's economics cause?
    deforestation and mercury poisoning
  39. Where were Amerindians forced to work?
    Textiles, food supply, mining
  40. Upper Social class?
    • Great Noble families did not come to Americas
    • Lesser nobles
    • Merchants
    • Artisans/miners/lawyers
    • Priests
  41. Middle class?
    • Creole
    • -White born in Americas
    • -Mixed Ancestry
    • Mulattos
    • -Europeans and African descent
    • Mestizos
    • -Mixed offspring from Creole or European
    • fathers
  42. What are Castas?
    • Spanish America called are mixed relations
    • Higher status then indigenous people
    • Followed Catholicism
    • Dress/Diet/actions were “European”
  43. How were the Ranchers?
    large farms, wage earning, controlled mining areas
  44. Why did Bosman maintain that the Dutch slave ships were so much cleaner than those
    of other European states?
    So they could sell their slaves for more moniez.
  45. English and French settlements?
    • Newfoundland
    • and Roanoke Island (pre 1600)
  46. Why did they fail?
    • poor leadership
    • undersupplied
    • timing
    • Amerindians
  47. Why were slaves branded?
    To show ownership and who were the slaves.
  48. Royal African Company (RAC)?
    • association of English investors
    • –1672,
    • received a charter from English monarchy
    • Rights to trade Atlantic coast of Africa
  49. What was the new important cash crop?
  50. Who was the worlds biggest sugar producer in 1600?
    Brazil, and the Dutch invested in them.
  51. Who did the Dutch fight for Independence?
  52. Who was cheeper...Indentured Servants or slaves?
  53. Who lived longer?
  54. Why did Sugar prices rise?
    To buy more slaves.
  55. What does England discover?
  56. What does French take half of?
  57. What were tools for sugar?
    • –Spade for planting
    • –Hoes for weeds
    • –Machete to harvest
    • –Crushing and processing equipment
  58. Why were plantations damaging to the enviorment?
    • –Soil exhaustion
    • –Deforestation
  59. Why were the animals dying?
    –Crowded out indigenous species
  60. Who were the Great Gang?
    • –Strongest slaves
    • –Heaviest work
  61. What the Grass Gang?
    • –Children with adult supervision
    • –Weeding, and collecting grass
  62. What did the women do?
    • –Field workers
    • –Nursing mothers took babies to the field
  63. –Grands Blancs/“Great Whites”
    •Dominatedthe economy and society
  64. –Petits Blancs/“Little Whites”
    • •Farmed
    • •Sold goods
  65. –Free Blacks
    •Some even owned their own slaves
  66. What was the social class?
    • Grande Blancs
    • Petits Blancs
    • Free blacks
Card Set
A/p World Ch. 16, 17, 18.txt
Chapter 16, 17, 18