Distinguish between the five needs in Maslow's hierarchy.
- Survival: food, clothing, shelter (primitive)
- Safety: physical safety (home, health, safety from harm), and psychological safety (job, retirement, insurance, and savings)
- Belonging: love, approval, acceptance, warmth
- Ego: recognition, worth, status, self-respect
- Self-actualization: self-fulfillment, personal growth, realizing potential
Identify ways to motivate people using Maslow's needs theory.
- Assess which level they are at in the hierarchy. A lower level need must be satisfied before the next higher level becomes important in motivating behavior.
- Only relatively unsatisfied needs are capable of motivating people (i.e. don't use levels they already have)
Distinguish between Herzberg's motivating and hygiene factors.
- Motivators: satisfying factors, include growth and advancement, higher level tasks, achievement, recognition, interest in task, and greater responsibility
- Hygiene factor: dissatisfying factors, include salary, status, security, policies, supervision, work environment, and interpersonal relationships
Identify ways to motivate people using Herzberg's motivator/hygiene theory.
- Address hygiene factors to lessen dissatisfaction (i.e. back to neutral). Satisfaction only comes from rewarding work.
- Motivate by decreasing hygiene factors and increasing motivating factors.
Describe task and relationship behavior.
- Task behavior: clearly telling people what, how, where, and when (i.e. closely supervising performance). Setting goals, organizing, setting timelines, directing and controlling.
- Relationship behavior: listening to people, providing support and encouragement, facilitating involvement in problem solving and decision making, communicating and providing feedback.
Describe each leadership style in the Situational Leadership Model.
- Telling (S1): high task, low relationship. One way communication, leader solves problems and makes key decisions, leader directs then guides follower
- Selling (S2): high task, high relationship. Two-way communication, leader hears ideas and opinions, leader maintains decision making, employs persuasion, and explains actions
- Participating (S3): high relationship, low task. Focus of control shifts to follower. Follower has ability and knowledge to complete the task, while leader actively listens and builds confidence of followers
- Delegating (S4): low task, low relationship. Follower makes key decisions and implements them. Leader gets updates, offers resource support, delegates tasks judiciously, and encourages risk-taking and independent thought
Explain how to assess followers' performance readiness.
- Based on ability (skills, knowledge, and experience) and confidence (commitment and motivation). Combination of these dictates performance readiness level.
- Transitions between R1-R2 and R3-R4 involve leader relying on more self directed follower behavior.
Describe each performance readiness level in the Situational Leadership Model.
- R1: Unable and unconfident
- R2: Unable but confident
- R3: Able but unconfident
- R4: Able and confident
Identify the leadership style appropriate for each performance readiness level.
- S1 for R1.
- S2 for R2.
- S3 for R3.
- S4 for R4.
Define the three ways of looking at the followership role.
- Job: know what the job is (duties, expectations), know how to do the job (don't wait, professional development, learn new things), and do the job (be motivated, communicate, and have an action plan to confront boss about problems)
- Boss/Subordinate Relationship: bosses don't like "yes" people; you need to have credibility by demonstrating respect and loyalty, gaining boss' admiration, and getting job done to expectations; ask for feedback from boss
- Responsibility for ourselves: manage your own feelings and behavior, and confront the boss about problems when necessary
Explain how military dissent should be delivered.
- Control your emotions
- use the chain of command
- write dissent down rather than delivering it by speech
- provide support (facts) for your dissent
- provide a solution for the problem
- establish preconditions for dissent
- evaluate the issues at hand
Identify the five rules of supervision.
- Get Involved: know your people, get out from behind desk but don't be over involved, show interest, have a sense of mission and share your plan and vision, don't take workers' performance for granted
- Open channels of communication: encourage discussion, resolve conflict, listen, and remain in control, schedule meetings for everyone, invite suggestions, open door policy,
- Give your people a chance to develop: match people with their work, be flexible to change and encourage development, give high performers more challenging tasks
- Establish standards and stick to them: AF standards, personal standards, enforce them and make sure you're setting the example, communicate standards clearly to people
- Provide feedback: negative feedback should be offered as constructive criticism, praise in public and discipline in private, don't be afraid to approach someone and ask for views/opinion, give feedback often not just during evaluations,
Describe techniques of giving and receiving feedback.
- Focus feedback on behavior not person
- Focus feedback on observations rather than inferences
- Focus feedback on exploration of alternatives rather than answers or solutions
- Focus feedback on the value it may have to the recipient
- Focus feedback on the amount of information the recipient can use
- Focus feedback on time and place so that personal data can be shared at appropriate times
Identify tasks that shouldn't be delegated.
- Conceptual planning
- Morale Problems
- Staff problems
- Reviewing others' performance reports
- Pet projects
Identify common mistakes made by supervisors while delegating.
- Unclear delegation
- Supervise too closely
- Rushed delegation
- Improper selection of subordinates
Know the definition and three parts of delegation.
Giving a subordinate the responsibility, authority, and accountability to accomplish a specific task.
Explain the four steps in delegation.
- Define the task - is it suitable for delegation? What's the desired outcome?
- Assign the task - choose the right person and explain the task and the goals
- Grand authority - decide how much power to give
- Follow up - give positive and timely feedback
Explain the steps of the Intervention Process Model.
- 1. Make a decision to intervene: decide what needs to be corrected, see if intervention is appropriate (cannot do, will not do, or does not know how to do), and how much direction is needed (possibly could collaborate on a solution)
- 2. Use Supportive and Assertive interaction skills: avoid defense-producing techniques in favor of trust-producing ones, know how to correct without disrespect (assertiveness rather than aggressiveness), and select an appropriate time and place
- 3. Involve person with problem in developing solution: describe and don't prescribe the situation, facilitate participation using open question techniques, interact on problem identification to eliminate irrelevant issues, and interact on possible solutions
- 4. Put issue in perspective: provide positive reinforcement of personal value
Identify ways to involve the counselee in developing solutions to problems.
- Describe and don't prescribe the situation
- facilitate participation using open question techniques
- interact on problem identification to eliminate irrelevant issues
- interact on possible solutions
Differentiate between aggressive, assertive, and passive communication.
- Aggressive is assertion at the expense of others and has winning as a motive. Uses threats, put-downs, and evaluators.
- Assertive is assertion without showing disrespect for others and moves toward a mutual solution to a problem. Includes "I" statements, cooperative words, and empathetic statements of interest.
- Passive is non-assertion and takes no action to support self or others, simply moves away from situation, appeases, or avoids contest. Words include qualifiers, fillers, and negatives.
Describe the traits of a good counselor.
- Sincerity: interested in counselee & problem
- Integrity: confide in someone they can trust
- Good listener: listen attentively and perceptively, counselee should do most of the talking
Identify the three counseling approaches (directive, nondirective, and eclectic).
- Directive: counselor-centered and leader does most of the talking, leader gives diagnosis & treatment with counselee, and not effective when emotions and attitudes are strong
- Non-directive: Counselee-centered, counselee should take responsibility for problem solving, frees counselee from hindrances to normal growth, feelings about the situation are paramount, and the counselor's participation is minimal, defensive attitudes shouldn't prevent discussing problems openly and honestly
- Eclectic: a combination of directive and non-directive approach, cooperation and responsibility from both parties, flexible to the situation
Explain the watching and listening counseling skill.
Watching and listening: make eye contact, have appropriate posture, give head nods to show you're listening, and make sure facial expressions show you're actively listening, watch for signs of boredom, notice self-confidence behavior (standing tall, making steady eye contact), look for negative feelings toward counselor (glaring, sarcastic comments, arms folded), frustration shown by rubbing eyes, short breaths, wringing hands, and moving toward the counselor indicates interest and openness
Explain the responding counseling skill.
Responding: questioning is key and open questioning should be used, summarize what they tell you if a topic is exhausted, if they ramble, or when it's time to start planning, interpret how their actions look to others, inform them of the objective facts about the situation, and confront them to correct behavior that is undesirable, to identify contradictions, rationalizations, excuses, or discrepancies
Explain the guiding counseling skill.
Guiding: adds structure and organization to the counseling, and helps the subordinate reach their own solution to the problem