1. 1st Industrial Revolution
    Social and economic reorganization that took place when machines took the place of hand tools, and large-scale factory production developed in the north (New England): began in Britain in the mid- 18th century.
  2. 49ers
    Americans lured to CA in 1849 with the discovery of gold, increased migration to CA by over 100% from 1848 - 1850.
  3. 54-40 or Fight!
    Slogan used by supporters of Pres. James K. Polk and Manifest Destiny, referred to the latitude of the northern limit of the disputed Oregon Territory. British agreed to extend the border between Canada and the U.S. at 49th Latitude to the Pacific.
  4. Abolitionist
    Opposed slavery. Tied particularly to religious leaders who believed slavery was a sin.
  5. Alamo
    abandoned mission used as a fort by a small force of Texans besieged by General Santa Anna, all killed by Mexican army in Dec. 1835
  6. American System
    Pres. James Madison's 3-part plan devised to strengthen the American economy, strongly promoted by Henry Clay: 1. develop transportation systems and other internal improvements. 2. Established a protective tariff. 3. reestablished a national bank
  7. Anthony, Susan B.
    One of the first female rights activists, leader at the Seneca Falls Convention, firmly committed to female suffrage
  8. Austin Stephen
    Established one of the initial colonies of American settlers in TX
  9. Brook Farm
    Utopian settlement located near Boston
  10. Clay, Henry
    KY Senator of the first 1/2 of the 19th cent., supported programs to strengthen and unify the US. Nicknamed " The Great Compromiser."
  11. Cooper, James Fennimore
    Early American author (Deer Hunter, Last of the Mohicans) helped establish an American Literary tradition and American nationalism.
  12. corrupt bargain
    Deal between John Q. Adams and Henry Clay in which Clay persuaded enough members in the House of Reps. to throw their support to Adams in the disputed Election of 1824 between Adams and Jackson, soon after Clay appointed Sec. of State.
  13. cotton gin
    a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
  14. Cotton Kingdom
    Term used to describe the wealth and economic dependence the Southeastern US had on cotton before the Civil War
  15. Deere, John
    Invented the steel plow, allowed farmers on the Great Plains to more easily plow through the tough, dry soil
  16. Dix, Dorothea
    Crusader for the rights of the mentally ill, established several hospitals dedicated to their care
  17. Douglass, Frederick
    Educated runaway Maryland slave, became the foremost abolitionist
  18. Election of 1824
    John Q. Adams v Andrew Jackson, disputed presidential election in which Corrupt Bargain too place.
  19. Election of 1832
    Jackson won reelection in the midst of the Nullification Crisis, while at odds with his VICE PRESIDENT J.C. Calhoun.
  20. Election of 1840
    Incumbent Martin Van Buren defeated by William Henry Harrison, whose running mate was John Tyler, chosen only to get Southern votes, not because he agreed Whig policies, Harrison quickly died and Tyler became President.
  21. Election of 1844
    James K. Polk defeated John Tyler, ushered in an era of unprecedented US expansionist policies.
  22. Emerson, Ralph Waldo
    Early American transcendentalist writer, promoted a simple life based on truth found in nature, personal emotion, imagination.
  23. Era of Good Feelings
    1816-1824 Brief period of 1 major political party (Democratic-Republicans) Established the American System.
  24. Erie Canal
    Opened in 1825, linked Lake Erie to the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson River.
  25. Finney, Charles G.
    Revivalist preacher credited with starting the Second Great Awakening.
  26. Fulton, Robert
    Built the first Steam Ship (Clermont) in 1807.
  27. Gadsden Purchase
    Small Southwestern strip of land purchased by US from Mexico in 1853 for $10 million with the intent of building a southern transcontinental railroad.
  28. Garrison, William Lloyd
    Outspoken New England abolitionist and editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator.
  29. Grimke Sisters
    Sarah and Angelina- daughters of SC planter, worked as abolitionist in the south, exiled for their work.
  30. Hawthorne, Nathaniel
    Early American New England author (Scarlet Letter), promoted Puritan values and ethics
  31. Henry Clay
    United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
  32. Hudson river school of artist
    Early American artist who depicted the natural and seemingly boundless wonders of the new American Landscape
  33. Indian Removal Act of 1830
    Passed by congress under Jackson, federal government was to provide funds to negotiate treaties that would force Indians to move west
  34. Irving, Washington
    New York author (Knickerbockers' History of New York) - "Rip Van Winkle" "Legend of Sleep Hollow" first American author appreciated by Europeans.
  35. Jackson, Andrew
    7th President of the U.S.represented the "rise of the common man" with universal white man suffrage. Hero of the battle of New Orleans (War of 1812). Indian fighter and later gains political strength from Indian Removal act of 1830. Strengthened the presidency with veto power
  36. Know-Nothings
    Nativist American group of the first 1/2 of the 19th century dedicated to undermining equal rights for immigrants.
  37. Lewis and Clark
    Captains of the expedition commissioned by Jefferson to explore the LA Purchase in 1804.
  38. Main Reform areas
    need answer
  39. Manifest Destiny
    Belief that God wanted America to expand to the west... and beyond. Led to Mexican War,
  40. Mann, Horace
    1st Secretary of Education in Massachusetts, established teacher training programs and instituted curriculum reforms.
  41. McCormick, Cyrus
    Invented automatic reaper in 1840s, allowed fewer laborers to harvest more acres of wheat, caused many farm workers to move to cities.
  42. McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
    Supreme Court case in which Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland couldn't tax the Bank of the US- strengthened federal authority.
  43. Mexican War
    Expansionist war undertaken by Pres. James K. Polk in the late 1840's in which the US gained about 1/2 of Mexico's territory- reopened the question of the expansion of slavery into new territory.
  44. Missouri Compromise
    1820 Compromise authored by Henry Clay on slave expansion issue, MO became a slave state and ME became a free state(to maintain Congressional balance), all future US territories south of MO's southern border (36/30) would be slave, north of it would be free.
  45. Monroe Doctrine
    President James Monroe's 1823 statement that further European colonization in the New World wouldn't be tolerated, hastily issued in post- War of 1812 nationalism, lacked strength to back it up.
  46. Morse, Samuel
    Inventor of telegraph (1837). Vastly increased the speed of communication across great distances.
  47. Mott, Lucretia
    Prominent abolitionist and woman's rights activist throughout the 19th century.
  48. Nat Turner's Rebellion
    1831 rebellion started by a VA slave who believed he received divine messages telling him the time was right for a rebellion, gathered 80 followers who killed 60 whites, Turner eventually captured and executed. Greatly increased tensions between whites and blacks across the South.
  49. nationalism
    Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe (713)
  50. Nativism
    Feeling of native-born americans that immigrants were being given too much control over America.
  51. Neoclassical Architecture
    American attempt to copy Greek and Roman styles of architecture.
  52. New Harmony
    Indiana Utopian settlement
  53. Oneida
    New York community founded in 1848 that encouraged free love, birth control, and eugenic selection of parents.
  54. Oregon Trail
    Trail from Independence, MO to Portland, OR carried thousands of immigrants west in the middle 1800's.
  55. Panic of 1819
    A chain reaction of bank failures, falling land prices, and foreclosures, most related to over speculation in westward lands. Created a major distrusted of the 2nd national bank as the cause of hard times.
  56. Pet Bank
    State banks in which Jackson deposited all federal funds in his attempt to kill the band of the United State
  57. Pet Banks
    State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
  58. Poe, Edgar Allen
    Early American Author, first to define American horror genre
  59. Prison Reforms
    Changes in penal institution that emphasized rehabilitation ( mid-19th century )
  60. protective tariff
    Protectionists in Congress passed a tariff law called the Protective Tariff which effectively limited competition from abroad on many products, the most important of which was cotton cloth.
  61. Rehabilitation
    Idea that punishment should be used to reform the imprisoned so that they may reenter society as productive citizens.
  62. sectionalism (north v. south)
    three distinct areas developed in the united states and their rivalry eventually led to the civil war. the north and south lost more than 600,000 lives.
  63. Seneca Falls Convention
    1848 woman's rights meeting at which the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments was presented.
  64. Sequoyah
    Cherokee Indian credited with establishing a written version of his language to help spread literacy among the Cherokee tribe.
  65. South Carolina Exposition and Protest
    John C. Calhoun's 1828 pamphlet which outlined his belief on why states should be able to nullify federal actions. Used to justify protecting states' rights and eventually secession.
  66. South Carolina Nullification Crisis
    SC's 1832 action to nullify the so-called Tariff of Abominations. Acted on the South Carolina Exposition and Protest. Jackson threatens force and South Carolina backs down.
  67. Spoils System
    Political practice of giving one's supporters government jobs regardless of merit.
  68. Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
    Woman's rights activist who helped lead the Seneca Falls Convention, continued to fight for female suffrage.
  69. Suffrage
    The right to vote. 1830's property qualifications dropped creating universal white male suffrage.
  70. Tariff of Abomination
    1828 tariff on manufactured goods, South's term for it because they had to pay inflated prices on manufactured goods while the cost of their cotton remained the same
  71. Tariff of Abomination
    Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North because it put a high tax on imported goods
  72. Tariff
    Tax on imports.Major revenue of the U.S. government in the 19th century.
  73. Texas Annexation
    US takeover of Texas in 1845, 7 years after Texans invited the US to do so, hotly contested in Congress because of slavery expansion issue
  74. Thoreau, Henry David
    Early American transcendentalist author (Walden), practiced early form of civil disobedience
  75. Tocqueville, Alex de
    French writer who expanded the idea of American democracy and advocated prison reform in America.
  76. Trail of Tears
    1838-1839 mass exodus of the remaining Cherokee in the Southeastern US to Western Indian Territories. (800 mile trip).
  77. Transcendentalism
    philosophy that emphasized the truth to be found in nature and intuition
  78. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
    Treaty that ended in the Mexican War, US gained Mexican Cession, about 1/2 of Mexico's territory and much of the present-day Southwestern US.
  79. Truth, Sojourner
    Runaway slave who traveled the nation speaking on abolition. Spoke at Seneca Falls Convention.
  80. Universal White Male Suffrage
    Idea that as US democracy progressed voting restrictions on white males were eased allowing Jackson's popularity in the election of 1824 and finally his victory in the Election of 1828
  81. Utopian Communities
    Communities established in the mid- 19th century based on the idea that all individuals receive equal shares of wealth for an equal amount of work.
  82. Walker, David
    Free black who, in his 1829 work Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. Encouraged slaves to fight for their freedom rather than wait for the end of slavery.
  83. Webster, Noah
    Main editor of Webster's Dictionary, which standardized the English language in the US.
  84. Whig Party
    Early American political party that favored wealthly northern merchants and bankers opposed to Jackson.
  85. Whitney, Eli
    Inventor of cotton gin, increased profitability of cotton production, and the need for African slaves
  86. Wilmot Proviso
    Amendment to a Congressional provision that if passed would have guaranteed that slavery wouldn't be extended into any part of the Mexican Cession.
  87. Worchester v. Georgia, 1832
    Supreme court ruling that GA wasn't entitled to regulate or invade Cherokee lands. Jackson overstepped his presidential powers by refusing to abide by the ruling.
Card Set
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