Activities provided to individuals to prevent the onset of a given disease
Goal of primary prevention measures?
To spare individuals the suffering, burden, and cost associated with the clinical condition
Examples: health protecting education and counseling
Examples of primary prevention measures?
Immunizations & chemoprophylaxis
What does active immunizations through the use of vaccines provide?
Long term protection from the disease
Use of vaccines is preferred to?
Passive immunization through the use of IG, because IG use provides only temporary protection
Secondary prevention measures?
Activities provided to identify and treat asymptomatic persons who have risk factors for a given disease or in preclinical disease
Examples: screening examinations for preclinical (mammography & cervical examination with pap smear). Screening examinations for clinical conditions (blood pressure measurement to detect HTN and lipid profile to detect hyperlipidemia)
Tertiary prevention measures?
Management of a person with an established disease
Goal of tertiary prevention?
Minimize disease associated complications and the negative health effects of the conditions.
Examples: medications and lifestyle modifications
Screening for Normal-Risk Adults?
1. Blood Pressure Height and Weight: periodically
2. Obesity: periodically
3. Pap smear: every 1-3 years
4. Chlamydia: 18-25 years old
5. Mammography: starting at 40 years old every 1-2 years
6. Colorectal cancer: starting at 50 depends on test
7. Osteoporosis: starting at 65 routinely
8. Alcohol use: periodically
9. Vision, hearing: starting at 65 years old periodically
1. Tetanus-diptheria every 10 years
2. Varicella susceptibles only: 2 doses
3. MMR women of childbearing age: one dose
4. Pneumococcal one dose after 65 years old
5. Influenza yearly after 50 years old
Hepatitis B cause?
Small double-stranded DNA virus that contain an inner core protein of hepatitis B core antigen and an outer surface HBsAG.
Hepatits B is transmitted through?
Exchange of body fluids.
Hepatitis B can cause?
Risk factors for chronic hepatitis B?
Hematoma or primary hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cirrhosis.
Hepatitis B immunization contraindications?
Neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, Bakers yeast, and Egg.
Smallpox is spread?
Through person to person via direct deposit of infective droplets onto the nasal, oral, or pharyngeal mucosal membrane or in the alveoli of the lungs.
Incubation period for smallpox?
7-17 days, during which the person does not have any symptoms and the disease is not contagious.
Prodromal stage of smallpox?
2-4 days, during which the person has a temperature of 101 -104 degrees F, malaise, headache, body aches, and sometimes vomiting. The person may be contagious during this time.
Next stage of smallpox?
Rash appears as small red spots on the tongue and in the mouth then develop into open sores (the person becomes contagious at this time). Rash spreads throughout the body within 24 hours, and then the temperature falls. By day 3, the lesions become raised, and by day 4 they fill with a thick opaque fluid and become umbilicated. Temperature often rises again until the lesions crust over. One week later, the crusts begin to fall off (person remains contagious until all of the crusts have fallen off).
Hepatitis A is caused by?
A small RNA virus.
Hepatitis A is transmitted through?
Fecal contaminated drinking water and food supplies.
Paralytic, life-threatening infections.
Poliovirus is transmitted through?
1. Self breast exam: monthly 20 years and older
2. Physical exam: 20-40, every 3 years and 40 and older every year.
3. Mammography: 40 and older, every year.
Colon and Rectum Examinations?
1. Age 50 and older
2. Yearly fecal occult blood test
3. Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years
4. Colonoscopy every 10 years
1. Age 50 and older: PSA and digital rectal exam annually