ch 5 pharm

  1. pt's over 65 years old are ____ as likely to experience ADE's than young adults
  2. which clients are usually hyperreactive to a drug? (4)
    • geriatric
    • children
    • decreased kidney function
    • decreased liver function
  3. the bioavailability of a drug is affected by its accumulation in ________
  4. how are ADE's classified by? (hint: type)
    type A and B
  5. which type is most responsible for ADE's?
    type A
  6. which type is predictable and avoidable?
    type A
  7. type A ADE's are generally associated with the admin of _______ dosages of a drug instead of _________ doses
    • therapeutic
    • high
  8. which type includes cytotoxic and toxic reactions? these can result from what? Are they more or less common?
    • type A
    • drug overdose
    • less common
  9. some type A ADEs occur due to interactions with which three causes?
    • drug-drug
    • drug-food
    • drug-disease
  10. which type of ADEs are independent of the dose and are unpredictable or avoidable?
    type B
  11. hypersensitivity or allergy related can be from which type?
    type B (the BEE gave me an allergic reaction)
  12. which type ADEs are the most life threatening and serious?
    type B
  13. T/F type b reactions are a major cause of important drug-induced illnesses.
  14. which type most commonly affects the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and skin?
    type B
  15. how long can it take for type b rxn's to become clinically noticeable?
    up to 12 wks
  16. dental hygienists need to review the medical history to identify patients taking ___________ and advise them of the possibility of _____ when the drug is taken.
    • bisphosphonate
    • ONJ
  17. what is ONJ?
    osteonecrosis of the jaw (bone death!)
  18. what is bisphosphonate used for?
    the prevention of bone density changes during cancer chemo or for the prevention of osteoporosis
  19. what are cytotoxic reactions?
    substances that are toxic to cells
  20. What kind of interaction is characterized as pharmacologic, physiologic, or chemical interactions, or drug-related receptor alterations?
    pharmacodyanmic drug-drug interaction
  21. What are changes in plasma levels of a drug as a result of a rate alteration of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion called?
    pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction
  22. what can cause a decrease in metabolism?
  23. what can block absorption?
    some nutrients
  24. what can increase absorption?
    fat diet
  25. what may act as a mechanical barrier to prevent access to mucosal surfaces?
  26. a meal with high fatty acid content will increase the absorption of ______ _______ drugs
    lipid soluble
  27. what does chelating mean?
    binding (chele = claw of a lobster or crab, therefore "chelation" = "grabbing")
  28. chelating can produce _______ complexes that cannot cross the intestinal mucosa during the absorption phase
  29. components of grapefruit juice inhibit the ________ 3A4 isoenzyme in the ______
    • CYP450
    • liver
  30. Probenecid inhibits renal tubular excretion of penicillin, therefore _______ the duration of action
  31. diazepam
    triazolam are all examples of _____________
    benzodiazepines ("am")
  32. what is benzodiazepine?
    a depressent
  33. amlodipine,
    and nifedipine, are all examples of _______ ______ ________ agents
    calcium channel blocking agents
  34. warfarin is an example of an ____ _______
    oral anticoagulant
  35. the effect of clarithromycin + grapefruit =
  36. benzodiazepines + grapefruit =
    decreased psychomotor function, increased sedation
  37. calcium channel blocking agents + grapefruit =
    tachycardia, hypotension
  38. warfarin + grapefruit =
    increased bleeding
Card Set
ch 5 pharm
ch 5 pharm