female reproductive system

  1. Preantral follicular phase
    • primary oocyte increases in size, granulosa proliferation, gap jx form between granulosas and oocyte, granulosas develop estrogen/FSH receptors, thecal cells develop w/receptors for LH
    • Independent of LH/FSH!
  2. Ovulatory phase
    • LH surge leading to ovulation about 16hrs after
    • The LH surge is triggered by critical level of estradiol
  3. Luteal phase
    • formation of corpus luteum after ovulation
    • increased progesterone (&estradiol) - peaks 8 days after LH surge, then declines to baseline by 12days after LH surge
    • Estradiol no longer has a positive feedback effect on LH/FSH secretion - instead estradiol and progesterone have a neg feedback effect on secretion
    • decreased pulse frequency of GnRH, LH/FSH
  4. Antral phase
    • second part of follicular phase
    • follicles undergo atresia, death of oocyte unless there are sufficient levels of FSH/LH & receptors
    • estradiol and FSH stimulate LH receptors on outer layers of granulosa cells
  5. Preovulatory phase
    • Third part of follicular phase
    • LH acts on LH receptors and stimulates synth and secretion of prostagladins
    • LH surge stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum
  6. Steroidogenesis
    • Thecal cells make androstenedione from cholesterol when stimulated by LH
    • Granulosa cells convert androstendione to estradiol w/aromatase
  7. Effect of large doses of GnRH
    • Causes downregulation of receptors, loss of responsiveness
    • Treatment for precocious puberty
  8. menopause symptoms
    • around 55YO
    • vasomotor instability: hot flashes
    • cardiovascular disease: incr. risk of atherosclerosis and MI
    • Reproductive tract: uterus atrophy, vaginitis, vaginal atrophy&dryness, pain during intercourse, bladder atrophy leading to urethritis, frequency, urgency
    • Bone: osteoporosis
    • Behavior: depression, anxiety, irritability, fatigue
  9. Menopause treatments
    Estrogen + progesterone: neg side effects of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease, pos effects on osteoporosis and colorectal cancer
  10. Contraception methods
    • rhythm and withdrawal methods, having few side-effects but a high failure rate
    • barrier methods, some of which can also be used to help prevent the spread of sexuallytransmitted diseases (male and female condoms, diaphragm, cervical cap, spermicides)
    • intrauterine devices (IUDs) that: prevent implantation of the blastocyst by inducing achronic inflammatory reaction in the endometrium; disrupt directed and coordinateduterine contractions, thereby preventing sperm movement towards fallopian tubes
    • sterilization (vasectomy in men; tubal ligation in women)
    • hormonal contraception
    • abortion
  11. Mechanism of hormonal birth control
    • Estrogen and progestin
    • Suppress LH surge/ovulation via steroid neg feedback
    • >99% efficacy
    • SE: thrombosis, PE, hemorrhagic stroke, impaired glucose tolerance, HTN - smoking worsens risks
    • No good evidence for incr. risk of cancer. May decrease risk of uterine and ovarian cancer
  12. Contraindications for oral contraceptives
  13. terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU)
    • functional unit of the breast, complexity varies with hormonal status of woman
    • acini: secretory epithelium w/basal nuclei + myoepithelial cells
    • wall of terminal duct: inner layer simple cubiodal epithelium, outer layer myoepithelial cells
    • intralobular stroma: loose
    • extralobular stroma: denser, contains adipose
    • TDLUs -> intralobular duct -> extralobular duct -> lactiferous duct
  14. mesovarium
    • part of broad ligament
    • ends at ovarian germinal epithelium
  15. Layers of the uterus
    • Germinal epithelium (simple cubiodal)
    • tunica albuginea
    • cortex: contains germinal cells
    • medulla: contains branches of ovarian artery/vein, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, sparse smooth muscle cells
  16. Blood supply to the endometrium
    • Uterine artery (carried in cardinal ligament): gives off 6-10 arcuate arteries
    • Straight arteries: basal layer of endometrium
    • Radial/helical arteries: functional layer of endometrium, degenerate during menstrual phase
  17. Syncytiotrophoblast
    • lose cell membranes to form syncytium
    • invade endometrial stroma by proteolytic enzymes
    • endometrial stroma cells become decidual cells
    • syncytio. engulfs decidual cells, produce hCG to maintain corpus luteum
  18. amnion
    • lined by layer of epiblast cells
    • eventually surrounds entire embryo
    • baby drinks amnionic fluid for nutrients
  19. primary yolk sac
    • lining of blastocyst cavity - Heuser's membrane
    • extraembryonic reticulum secreted by Heuser's membrane between cytotrophoblast and Heuser's
    • extraembryonic mesoderm invades extraembryonic reticulum and divide it into 2 layers = chorionic cavity
    • separates amnionic cavity from cytotrophoblast cells
  20. embryonic disc
    • between amnion and yolk sac
    • suspended in chorionic cavity by mesoderm called connecting stalk
  21. delivery of blood to fetus
    • mom's blood comes from radial artery, squirts into intervillous space (fused lacunae)
    • syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, fibrous tissue, endothelial
    • blood in fetal umbilical artery is deoxygenated; oxygenated blood returns to fetus in umbilical vein
  22. decidual tissue
    • decidua basalis: between fetus and uterine wall -> becomes chorion frondosum by end of 8th wk
    • decidua capsularis: superficial tissue overlying fetus -> becomes smooth chorion at the end of 8th wk
    • decidua parietalis: remaining decidual tissue
  23. placenta previa
    • placenta covers the internal os
    • painless bleeding @ 30wks gestation
  24. estrogen and progesterone receptors during pregnancy
    • increased ratio of ER/PR on the uterine myometrium prior to the onset of labor.
    • uterus is more sensitive to the stimulatory effects of estradiol on myometrial contractions.
  25. pineal body attachments
    • bulbospongiosus muscles
    • superficial transverse perineal muscles
    • deep transverse perineal muscles
    • external anal sphincter
  26. What is progesterone's effect in pregnancy or luteal phase?
    Inhibits the stimulatory effects of estrogen on uterine myometrial contractions, leading to a decrease in the magnitude and frequency of uterine contractions
  27. What are hormone levels during pregnancy?
    prolactin is high, estrogen and progesterone are high and supress milk production until birth of baby
Card Set
female reproductive system
block 3 wk 7