Ch. 4 perosnality

  1. trait psychology is also called
    dufferebtuak psychology
  2. Theoretical issues (5)
    • 1. meaning ful differences between individuals
    • 2. cosistency over time
    • 3. consistency across situations
    • 4. person-situation interaction
    • 5. Aggregation
  3. Theoretical issues:
    Meaningful differneces between individuals
    People differ in amounts of traits, and differences can be accurately measured

    According to trait psychologists, every personality is the product of a combination of a few basic, primary traits
  4. Theoretical issues:
    cosistency over time
    Research indicates consistency over time for broad traits

    Although consistent over time, how a trait is manifested in behavior might change over time

    How can there be consistency in a trait if it is known to change with age (e.g., impulsivity)? Focus on the rank order differences between people
  5. Theoretical issues:
    Consistency accross situations
    Trait psychologists traditionally assumed cross-situation consistency

    If situations mainly control how people behave, then the existence or relevance of traits questionable
  6. Consistency accross situations: Hartshorne and may
    Low cross-situation consistency is in honesty, helpfulness, self-control
  7. Consistency across situations:
    Personality psychologists should abandon their efforts to explain behavior with traits, focusing instead on situations

    critique encouraged debate in personality psychology about the importance of traits compared to situations in causing behavior
  8. Consistency across situations: Situationalism
    If behavior varies across situations, then situational differences and not personality traits determine behavior
  9. Pearson- situation interaction: 2 possible explanations for behavior
    1. Behavior is a function of personality traits

    2. Behavior is a function of situation
  10. Pearson-situation integration
    - Integration: personality and situation interact to produce behavior

    - Differences between people make a difference only under certain circumstances
  11. Pearson-situation interaction:
    situational specificity:
    Certain situations can provoke behavior that is out of character for an individual
  12. Pearson-situation interaction:
    stron situation
    Situations in which most people react in a similar way (e.g., grief following loss of loved one)

    When situations are weak or ambiguous, personality has its strongest influence
  13. Pearson-situation interaction:
    2 additional ways personality and situation interact to produce behavior
    1. Selection- Tendency to choose or select situations in which one finds oneself, as a function of personality

    2. Evocation - Certain personality traits may evoke specific responses from others

    3. Manipulation - Various means by which people influence the behavior of others; tactics of manipulation vary with personality
  14. Aggregation
    - Longer tests are more reliable than shorter ones and are better measures of traits

    - Single behavior or occasion may be influenced by extenuating circumstances unrelated to personality
  15. Aggregation implies
    • - implies that traits are only one influence on behavior
    • - implies that traits refer to the person’s average level
  16. Carelessness
    - Method for detecting such problems is an infrequency scale embedded in test

    -Infrequency scale contains items that most people answer in a particular way

    -Another method for detecting carelessness is to include duplicate items spaced far apart in the survey—if the person answers the same item differently, this suggests carelessness
  17. Faking on questioneaires:
    Faking good
    Attempt to appear better off or better adjusted than one is
  18. Faking on questionnaires:
    Fake bad
    Attempt to appear worse off or less adjusted than one is
  19. How to detect faking on questionnaires:
    Method to detect is to a devise scale that, if answered in particular way, suggests faking
  20. Response sets:
    Tendency to agree with items, regardless of content; psychologists counteract by reverse-keying some items
  21. Response Sets:
    Extreme responding
    Tendency to give endpoint responses
  22. Response sets:
    Social desirability
    Tendency to answer items in such a way so that one comes across as socially attractive or likable
  23. 2 views on social disirability
    - Represents distortion and should be eliminated or reduced

    - Valid part of other desirable personality traits, such as agreeableness, and should be studied
  24. Integrity testing
    - Integrity tests are surveys designed to assess whether a person is generally honest or dishonest; replaced polygraph

    - When assessed against the “big five” personality traits, integrity is the combination of high conscientiousness, high agreeableness, and low neuroticism
  25. Personnel selection: choosing the right person for job
    Personality tests frequently used to screen out “wrong” individuals from a pool of applicants for police officers

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

    California Personality Inventory (CPI)

    16 Personality Factor (16PF) Questionnaire
  26. Barnum statement
    generality that could apply to anyone
  27. Range restriction affects correlation
    When two variables are correlated with each other, the size of correlation depends, in part, on whether each variable spans full range in the sample

    Violation occurs when participants are selected on the basis of one score, and then that score is correlated with another variable on which participants have been measured

    Correlation between two variables will shrink as the range of scores on one (or both) variables is restricted
  28. Myers-briggs type indicator (MBTI) is the most .............
    widely used personality assesment device in a business setting
  29. MBTI asses 8 fundamental preferences which reduce to 4 scores:
    Extraverted versus introverted

    Sensing or intuitive

    Thinking or feelings

    Judging or perceiving
  30. MBTI four scors yeild ........ types of personalities
  31. MBTI widely used to select appticants for .......... posistions
  32. selection
    Tendency to choose or select situations in which one finds oneself, as a function of personality
  33. evocation
    Certain personality traits may evoke specific responses from others
  34. Manipulation
    Various means by which people influence the behavior of others; tactics of manipulation vary with personality
Card Set
Ch. 4 perosnality
Ch.4 info for exam 1