1. “To amend the Public Health Service Actto make the provision of technicalservices for medical imagingexaminations and radiation therapytreatments safer, more accurate,and lesscostly .” What is this?
    CARE bill
  2. Purpose of the care bill?
    • Safer
    • More Accurate
    • Less costly
  3. JCAHO?
    Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health care Organizations
  4. Note:
    The QA officer's job in an organization?
    • Establish criteria
    • Monitor performance
    • Collect data
    • Analyze data
    • Evaluate data
  5. Quality Control: Aspect of QA that is concerned with the __________ technical standards
  6. Screen Phosphors
    • Calcium tungstate
    • Barium Sulfate
    • Rare Earth: (Gadolinium, Lanthanum, Yttrium)
  7. Rare earth phosphors?
    • Gadolinium
    • Lanthanum
    • Yttrium
  8. Wire mesh test is used to test?
    Film screen contact
  9. Single emulsion film: Emulsion side is _____ and the non-emulsion side is ________. Which side goes towards intensifying screen?
    • dull
    • shiny
    • emulsion side
  10. Film Identification "Must Have"?
    • Date of exposure
    • Full name of patient
    • Pt ID number
    • Name of institution
    • Side marker (LorR)
  11. Invisible image stored in theemulsion?
    Latent image
  12. The visible image, formed when the ______ image is chemically processed?
    latent image is processed = manifest image
  13. To accumulate enough black metallic silver at sensitivity specks to yield a visible image is the purpose of?
    Film processing
  14. Film processing involves what four steps (in correct order)?
    • developing
    • fixing
    • washing
    • drying
  15. Hypo retention?
    Retention of the fixer in the emulsion– Causes the image to discolor to brown overtime.
  16. What is a "cresent moon?" (dealing with film)
    Where the film has been creased.
  17. Note: Dailey processor QC
    • • Clean crossover racks
    • • Check developer temperature
    • • Check wash temp
    • • Check replenishment rates
    • • Sensitometry and densitometry
  18. An unintended hazy density on the radiograph that reduces contrast is called?
  19. Sensitometry measures?
    The response of film to exposure and processing
  20. Sensitometer creates a uniform set of densities on a film, and a _____________ measures the optical density.
  21. Densitometer: Reads on a scale of 0-4. 0 being ____ and 4 being _____. Typical diagnostic ranges are from ____ to ____.
    • 0= all light goes through (clear)
    • 4= no light got through (very dark)
    • 0.25-2.5 is the range.
  22. #1 problem with film processors?
  23. "Damp films" are often caused by?
    Developer not properly replenished. Thats where the hardening takes place.
  24. Key thing with safe lights?
    Make sure the color sensitivity of the safe light matches the film, meaning that the safe light will not expose the film.
  25. Artifacts on film?
    • Fingerprints (developer on fingers?)
    • Static discharge
    • Cresant moon crimp (bend the film)
    • FOG
  26. The D Log E Curve is also known as?
    • Sensitometric curve
    • Characteristic curve
    • Hurter and Driffield (H & D) curve
  27. The H&D curve is a graph that represents?
    Density produced relative to the exposure
  28. H&D curve: Toe? Straight line? Shoulder?
    • Toe- no or little exposure (clear area)
    • Straight line- usable portion
    • Shoulder- too black
  29. Bass + Fog should not exceed?
  30. Resolution (in film) is determined by?
    • The smallness of the silver hallide crystals
    • The smallness of the phosphor crystals
    • (Inversely related to size of silver halidecrystals) Better resolution=smaller crystals
  31. Resolution is measured in?
    line pairs/mm
  32. Faster film will have a curve closer to _____ of a graph.
  33. The steeper the straight line on an H&D curve the more _______.
  34. Latitude: The lower the slope (the more horizontal the line) the wider the latitude. The higher the slope (more vertical) less latitude.
  35. What is a "pie line" caused from?
    The roller on the processor.
  36. Light field and x-ray beam congruence
    +/- 2% of SID
  37. Central ray indicator allowance
  38. Distance indicator allowance?
    =/- 10%
  39. Centering indicator allowance?
    +/- 2%
  40. Tube angle allowance?
    +/- 1%
  41. Timer Accuracy allowance?
    +/- 5%
  42. Motorized spinning top is used for ______.
    three phase machines
  43. mA station accuracy?
    +/- 10% between mA stations. Also +/- 10% between high and low
  44. Wisconsin test cassette was used to test?
  45. Kilo voltage Accuracy?
    +/- 5%
  46. Half-Value layer?
    amount of filtration that will reduce beam intensity to one-half of its original value
  47. Exposure Reproducibility
    +/- 5%
  48. Three types of focal spot test tools?
    • Line pair resolution tools
    • Star test patterns
    • Pinhole cameras
  49. Fluoroscopic Exposure rate?
    • 2.1 R/min per mA station.
    • Maxiumum of 10R per min (5 mA is highest rate)
  50. SMPTE?
    The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
  51. NEMA
    National Electrical Manufactures Association
  52. DICOM
    Digital Imaging and Communication.
  53. VESA?
    Video Electronics Standard Association
  54. Radiographer is the “true professional expert” of?
    creating the image
  55. Radiographer repeat rates should be between ______.
  56. A quality assurance program monitors?
  57. A quality control program is for?
  58. Most quality control testing on major radiographic equipment is done?
  59. It is acceptable to perform a __________test instead of measuring the focal spot size.
    Line Pair
  60. Comparing the mR output at 50 mA @ 0.2sec, 100 mA @ 0.1 sec, and 200 mA @0.05 sec is part of a test for _________
    linearity, the allowance is +/- 10%
  61. When a light in a view box burns out, then
    all bulbs in the view box must be replaced
  62. Processor crossover racks should becleaned on a _____ basis.
  63. Notes: Values in medical ethics. Values that commonly apply to medical ethics discussion,
    • Autonomy - the patient has the right to choose
    • Beneficence - best interest of the patient.
    • Non-maleficence - "first, do no harm"
    • Confidentiality- patient-physician privilege
    • Justice - distribution of scarce health resources
    • Dignity - the patient has the right to dignity.
    • Truthfulness and honesty
  64. The Code of Ethics shall serve as a guide by which Registered Technologists and Candidates may evaluate their professional conduct as it relates to patients, healthcare consumers,employers, colleagues, and other members of the healthcare team.
    Minimum standards of conduct
  65. RULES OF ETHICS: They are mandatory standards of minimally acceptableprofessional conduct for all present Registered Technologists,Registered Radiologist Assistants, and Candidates.
  66. Minimum total filtration for generalpurpose radiographic unit?
    2.5 mm al/eq
  67. The focal spot size should be evaluated ______, or whenever the x-ray tube is _______.
    • annually
    • replaced
  68. Exposure timer accuracy should be within ___% of the indicated time for exposure times greater than 10 milli-seconds
  69. The ability of a radiographic unit to produce a constant radiation output for various combinations of ma and expousrue time is called?
    exposure linearity
  70. Exposure linearity must bewithin ___% for adjacent mAstations.
  71. Sequential radiation exposures should be reproducible to within ____%.
    +/- 5%
  72. Screens should be cleaned not less often than?
    every other month
  73. Screen film contact should be evaluated _______ using the ___________ test.
    • once or twice a year
    • wire mesh pattern test
  74. All protective aprons, gloves and gonadal shields should be radio graphed or fluoroscoped ________ for defects.
  75. Viewbox illumination should be analyzed photometrically on an ______ basis.
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