Basic Concepts

  1. What are contraindications & precautions?
    C: Symptom of circumstance that makes treatment with a drug or a device unsafe or inappropriate. P: An action taken in advance to protect against danger, harm, or possible failure.
  2. What is pharmacokinetics?
    Study of metabolism & action of drugs with particular emhphasis on the time required for absorption,duration of action, distribution in the body & method of excretion
  3. What is pharmacotherapeutics?
    Study of therapeutic uses and effects of drugs
  4. What is pharmacology?
    Branch of medicine concerned with the uses, effects, and modes of actions of drugs
  5. What is pharmacodynamics?
    Study of drugs & their actions on living organisms
  6. What is unwanted response to a therapeutic drug?
    Adverse drug effects (ADE)
  7. What were the major provisions of the Kefauver-Harris Act on 1962? (4)
    • 1. Adverse rxns & contraindications must be cited & included in the literature
    • 2. Evaluation of testing methods used by manufactureres
    • 3. Specified the process for withdrawal of approved drugs when safety & effectiveness were in doubt
    • 4. Mandated the establishment of clinical efficacy of new drugs before marketing
  8. What is the Harrison Narcotic Law of 1914?
    It is an act that sets rules for the manufacture & use of drugs with potential for abuse
  9. What agency enforces the Harrison Narcotic Law of 19414?
    Drug Enforcement Agency
  10. What is schedule I drug?

    High abuse potential. Severe dependence liability classification

    II also has high abuse potential & dependence liability as well

    i.e: heroin, hashish, LSD, GHB
  11. Examples of Schedule II, III, IV, V drugs
    • II: morphine
    • III: moderate moderate: codeine
    • IV: pentazocine (agonist-antagonist)
    • V: limited abused potential, lowest dependence: loperamide
  12. Why is IV one of the most dangerous route?
    Once it is given it cannot be retrieved nor its distribution throughout the body be slowed or stopped
  13. Gastric acids and enzymes destroy many drugs
    Food may interfere with the dissolution & absorption of certain drugs

    These are examples of core ____ ______
    Core drug knowledge
  14. What are some core patient variables?
    • Health status
    • Life span & gender
    • Environment
  15. Are these actions to minimize adverse effects or maximmize therapeutic effects?
    1. Drugs that have enteric coating & drugs in sustained-release form should never be chewed, crushed, or broken.
    2. NG & G tubes need to be flushed after administration of meds
    3. Shake liquid med immediately before administration of the medication
    4. Med may be mixed w/ food or fluids
    5. Nurse must follow closely the cardinal rules of drug administration (6 Rights)
    6. Drugs administered thru an NG or G tube are instilled slowly
    7. Repeated doses of sucrose-containing syrups may increase the risk of gingivitis or dental caries
    8. Assess for proper placement before administering drugs
    • 1. Minimizing
    • 2. Maximizing - so pt gets all the meds
    • 3. Maximizing - to distribute meds evenly so pt gets the right dose
    • 4. Maximizing - to encourage pt. to take all meds prescribed
    • 5. Minimizing - to eliminate med errors
    • 6. Maximizing
    • 7. Mimizing
    • 8. Mimizing
  16. Adrenergic (adrenaline) or cholinergic (NT-acetylcholine)
    In cell biology a structure in cell membrane or within a cell that combines with a drug hormonee, chemical mediator, or infectious agent to alter an aspect of the function of the cell.

    AKA sensory nerve ending
  17. special characteristics of the capillary walls of the brain that prevent potentially harmful substances including many med from moving out of the bloodstream into the brain or cerebrospinal fluid.
    blood-brain barrier
  18. AKA metabolism

    alteration of a substance (such as a drug) within the body
  19. What is a drug half-life?
    How long a drug takes for half of it to be eliminated from the blood stream
  20. To achieve a therapeutic amt in the body more rapidly than would occur only by accumulation of the repeated smaller doses

    Larger than normal dose administered as the first in a series of doses, the others of which are smaller than the loading dose but equal to each other
    Loading dose
  21. These are the smaller doses given after a loadig dose to maintain an accumulation of medication in the pt for therapeutic relief
    Maintenance dose
  22. Plateau or steady state
    When the same amt of drug going in is the same amt of drug being taken out (METABOLIZED)
  23. The extent, quality or degree of being poisonous
  24. Side effect
    An action or effect of a drug other than that desired
  25. Causing abnormal development of the embroy
    Teratogenic effect
  26. Any injury or illness that occurs as a result of medical care

    i.e: foley cath & UTI
  27. What is drug tolerance?
    Progressive decreases in the effectiveness of drug

    Drug doses must be increased to achieve the same effectiveness
  28. The amount of drug bound to the protein determines how effective the drug is in the body.

    If 95% bound to protein, how many % cause pharmacological effect on the body?
    Protein binding

    5%. Free (active) = produce effects
  29. Determined either by measurement of concentration of drug in body fluids or by magnitude of pharmacologic response

    Rate & extent to which an active drug or metabolite enters the general circulation, permitting access to the site of action
  30. How is therapeutic index calculated?

    What does it mean when the TI is narrow?

    It means drug will produce unwanted effect
  31. Drugs that mimic the body's own regulatory function
  32. When both a full agonist & partial agonist are present, how does the partial agonist react to the agonist?

    What is an example of agonist-antagonist narcotic?
    Partial agonist will actually compete against the agonist for receptor occupancy, therefore producing a net decrease in receptor activation observed with the full agonist alone

    i.e: pentazocine
  33. What is drug clearance?
    The rate drug leaves body
  34. What is Single-occupancy theory?
    The intensity of the body’s response to the drug isdirectly r/t the # of receptors occupied by the drug

    The maximum response occurs when all of the receptors have drug molecules attached.
  35. Can drug create new responses in the body?
    No! They can only turn on, turn off, promote, or block a response that the body is inherently capable of producing
  36. When should pharmacotherapeutic response of a drug be measured?
    When drug has achieved steady state
  37. What is modified occupancy theory?
    Different drugs have different strengths of attractions, or affinity, for receptor sites. Once a drug is attached to a receptor, it has different abilities to stimulate the receptor
  38. What is potency?
    The amount of a drug that must be given in order to produce a PARTICULAR RESPONSE
  39. In what condition are loading dose given?
    Patient’s medical condition may warrant immediate and full drug effect
  40. What is synergistic effect?
    When 2 or more “UNLIKE” drugs are used together to produce a combined effect
  41. What is an additive effect?
    When 2 or more “LIKE” drugs are combined.
  42. What is nonreceptor responses
    Drugs exert their effect by reacting physically or chemically w/ other molecules in the body
  43. What is Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC)?
    The level of drug needed in the body to produce an effect
  44. What is potentiation?
    An INTERACTION in which the effect of only ONE of the TWO drugs is increasedDrug that has mild effect enhances the effect of a second drug
Card Set
Basic Concepts
Pharm Test 1