1. What are lipids made of?
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Sterols
  2. Fatty acids are key building blocksThe longer the chain, the more solid the fat.
    lipid composition
  3. Of what are saturated fats composed?
    • usually animal fats
    • straight and stack solid
  4. How are Monounsaturated Fats composed?
    • One double bond
    • found in olive oil
    • tend to bend, can't stack as well
  5. How are polyunsaturated fats composed?
    • Many double bonds, more liquid
    • greater than one double bond, lower melting point ex: margarinebutter has higher melting point
  6. stack tightly and form solids at room temp
    fatty acids
  7. How do short chain fatty acids form at room temp?
    Liquid form at room temp
  8. T/FMonounsaturated oils store in adipose tissue?
    False. Monounsaturated do not store in adipose tissue
  9. What are some sources of saturated fatty acids?
    Bacon, meats, animal fats
  10. What are some sources of monounsaturated fats?
    olive oil, avocado, canola and peanut oils
  11. What are some sources of polyunsaturated fats?
    safflower, sunflower, corn oil, soy
  12. What happens to polyunsaturated fats if left out?
    When double bonds are present, these fats are easier to spoil, attract O2 and becomes rancid easily
  13. Some double bonds take on a H+ atom. A single bond develops and straightens the fatty acid chain. Not all double bonds will attach to Hydrogen. Some fatty chains will keep double bonds and twist to form a trans shape and not Cis.
    process of hydrogenation
  14. Which is better, Cis formed fatty acid chains or Trans formed fatty acid chains? Why?
    Cis is the better form of fatty acid chains. Fatty acid chain maintains same shape as is natural with double bond between two central carbons and added Hydrogen on bottom side of each Carbon. This causes a V shape which makes them difficult to stack. The Trans form is a straighter chain and these can stack easily
  15. What is the structure of a triglyceride?
    Glycerol + 3 fatty acids.
  16. Name some functions of triglycerides.
    Energy source and reserveInsulation and protectionCarrier of fat-soluble vitsSensory qualities in food
  17. How much of dietary fat is in the form of triglycerides?
  18. What do we get from fat?
    Energy. Fat will give ATP.
  19. What are the two essential fatty-acids?
    • Linoleic acid
    • Alpha-linolenic acid
  20. Why are essential fatty acids considered essential?
    Because the human body does not make them, so the human body must get them by consuming the fatty acids
  21. What is omega-3 fatty acid made of?
    Linolenic + EPA, DHA
  22. What is omega-6 fatty acid made of?
    Linolenic + arachidonic + GMA
  23. What are good sources of Omega-3 and Omega-6?
    Salmon, sardines, blue fish, herring, tuna
  24. What fish should humans eat less of?
    Tilapia and catfish: make omega-6 and increase risk of heart disease, stroke, inflammation of arteries
  25. What are the beneficial properties of cod liver oil?
    • Rich in omega-3 fats
    • decrease NSAIDS if patient requires for arthritis pain
  26. What is the structure of phospholipids?
    Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group
  27. How much of dietary fat is phospholipids?
    2% of dietary fat
  28. For what are sterols precursors?
    sterol hormones, Vitamin D, bile acids.
  29. What are food sources of sterols?
    found only in animal foods
  30. How much dietary fat comes from sterols?
    3% of dietary fat
  31. What happens to fats in the mouth?stomach?small intestine?
    • in the mouth, fats melt
    • stomach- gastric lipase breaks up fat
    • SI- main hydrolysis of FA
    • emulsified by phospholipids and bile
    • digested by pancreatic lipase
    • fat micelles transport to SI walls
    • absorbed into intestinal cells
    • (formed into chylomicrons and moved into lymphatic system via lacteals)
  32. Deliver dietary lipids from intestines to cells and liver
  33. deliver triglycerides to cells
  34. deliver cholesterol to cells
  35. How many Kcal per gram of fat?Is fat a good energy source?
    • 9 Kcal/gm
    • Yes
  36. How much resting energy comes from fat?
    60% of resting energy is from fat
  37. How does fat function for storage?
    a gram of fat stores more than 6x as much energy as a gram of glycogen.
  38. A micronutrient carrier
  39. What does fat carry?
    fat-soluble vits and carotenoids
  40. What determines the traits of amino acids?
    the side group determines the traits
  41. How many total AA needed to build a protein?
    20 AA
  42. How many essential AAs?
    9 essential AA
  43. What makes AAs essential?
    Conditionally essential amino acids become essential if not able to convert essential to non-essential
  44. What will be formed if 2 AA are joined?if 3 AA?
    • dipeptide
    • tripeptide
  45. How are AA joined?
    peptide bonds
  46. denaturation: to uncoil the proteinchange the shape of the protein
    protein breakdown
  47. Where does hydrolysis of proteins begin? What happens there?
    Hydrolysis starts in the stomach. There, HCl- uncoils and activates pepsin
  48. _________ is the breakdown of AAs. immediate fate of excess protein. NH3- transformed to urea, store glycogen, fat if excess
  49. What happens if protein levels are too low?
    No protein for cell wall, water leaks in, cells swell, resulting edema
  50. What is an example of a transport protein?
  51. What are the functions of proteins?
    • electrolyte balance transport protein
    • transport proteins
    • structure- collagen matrix
    • maintenance of pH levels
    • immune system function
    • makes hormones
    • makes blood
    • makes ferritin to help heal wounds
  52. What is the only source of Nitrogen for the body?
  53. What is done with carbon skeleton from protein deamination?
    use AAs to make glucose, ketones or fat
  54. What will happen to excess proteins?
    excess proteins will make fat
  55. What is the RDA for protein?
  56. What is Kwashiokor?
    an acute lack of protein
  57. What is Marasmus?
    a chronic condition of too little protein
  58. In what are vegan diets lacking?
    low in B12, omega-3, iron, and zinc
  59. The sum of all chemical reactions in the body's cells.
  60. What is the function of ribosomes?
    protein synthesis
  61. What is the most metabolically active organ in the body?
  62. what does the liver do?
    metabolizes, stores and distributes nutrients after absorption
  63. ____allow chemical reactions to occur at fast enough rates for normal body function
  64. During fasting or starvation, _____ are catalyzed to glucagon during times of starvation.__________ when under stress
    • triglycerides
    • Epinephrine or cortisol
  65. _______ are the backup fuel for the brain and nerve function when glucose is limited
  66. _______ are the backup fuel for the brain and nerve function when glucose is limited
  67. what happent to excess carbs?
    Excess carbs are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles
  68. what happens to excess carbs and protein
    Excess carbs and proteins are converted to triglyceride through lippgenesis and stored as adipose tissue (FAT)
  69. Fatty acids are easily stored as body fat.
    Fatty acids are easily stored as body fat.
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