Research Midterm

  1. name and describe two kinds of realities
    Agreement reality - accepting reality of things you don't personally experience.

    Experiential reality - direct observation
  2. what are the foundations of social science
    • logic- make sense
    • observation - correspond with what we observe
  3. what is an aggregate
    collective actions and situations of many individuals
  4. what is an attribute
    values or chracteristics or qualities that describe an object.
  5. what is a variable?
    logical sets of attributes.
  6. what is the relationships between independent and dependent variables?
    independent is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.
  7. what is an independent variable
    values that are not problematical in an anlysis but are taken as simply given.
  8. what is a dependent variable
    depends on or is caused by another variable.
  9. discuss inacurate observations and how to safegaurd against them
    mistakes in observation

    • make the observation more deliberate
    • simple and complex measuring devices
  10. discuss overgeneralizations and how to safegaurd against them
    assuming that a few similar evenst are evidence of a general pattern - overgeneralize based on limited observation

    • seeking a sufficiently large sample
    • replication of inquiry
  11. what is replication
    repeating an experiment to expose or reduce error
  12. discuss selectiveobservations and how to safegaurd against them
    after realizing that a pattern exists and developing a general understanding of why, you tend to focus on future events and situations that fit the pattern, ignore those that don't.

    specify in advance the number and kind of observations to be made

    make special effor to find deviant cases
  13. discuss illogical reasoning and how to safegaurd against it
    handling observations in a way that contradicts the way things are in real life - the exception that proves the rule

    use systems of logic s consciously and explicitly
Card Set
Research Midterm
Research and eval mideterm