B249, Module II, Urinary Elimination

  1. Subtitle: Kidneys

    How does the urinary system process waste for urinary elimination?
    First, waste is filtered from the blood in the kidneys, we call this 'urine'

    Next, ureters from the renal pelvis transport 'urine' from the kidney to the bladder

    Then, the bladder holds the urine until the urge to urinate develops

    Last, urine leaves the bladder through the urethra.
  2. Subtitle: Anatomy of the Kidneys (general)

    Describe the position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity?
    The kidneys lie on either side of the vertebral column,

    They lie behind the peritoneum and against the deep muscles of the back,

    The left kidney is normally higher than the right kidney due to the liver.
  3. Subtitle: The kidneys

    The glomerulus, the initial site of blood filtration does not normally filter large proteins.

    1. What are large proteins in the urine called?

    2. What are large proteins in the urine an indication of?
    1. Proteinuria

    2. A sign of glomerular injury
  4. What is the normal output of normal adult urine in mL/day?
    The normal output is 1500-1600ml depending on the intake, of course.
  5. Subtitle: Kidneys

    The Kidneys produce several substances that are vital to the production of:
    1. RBC's

    2. Blood pressure

    3. Bone mineralization
  6. Subtitle: Kidneys

    The kidneys produce a hormone that is responsible for maintaining normal RBC volume. What is this hormone called?
  7. Subtitle: The Ureters

    How is the reflux of urine from the bladder to the ureters prevented?
    Urine moves from the kidney to the bladder by peristaltic waves. The ureters enter the bladder obliquely to prevent reflux during micturition (passing of urine from the bladder).
  8. Subtitle: The Bladder

    When the bladder is empty, where does it lie?

    Men: where does the bladder lie?
    Women: where does the bladder lie?
    It lies in the pelvic cavity behind the pubic symphysis.

    Men: against the anterior wall of the rectum

    Women: against the anterior wall fo the uterus and vagina
  9. Subtitle: Bladder

    How are you able to tell if the bladder is full?
    You can do a few things:

    1. you can palpate the bladder (a greatly distended bladder may reach the level of the umbilicus)

    2. you can percuss the bladder and listen for dullness.
  10. Subtitle: Urethra

    How does urine pass through the urethra?
    Through the urethral meatus.
  11. Subtitle: urethra

    What role does the turbulent flow of the urine play in the urinary system?
    Washes the urine free of bacteria.

    (urine from the ureters to the bladder is usually sterile. bacteria can build in the bladder)
  12. Subtitle: Ureters

    What does size of the urethra have to do with bacterial infections for men and women?
    The size of the urethra is about 4 - 6.5 cm for women and girls. It is easy for bacteria to enter the urethra through the perineal area.

    For men, the length of the urethra is about 20cm.
  13. The act of urination:

    Is urination under voluntary control?
    Why or why not?
    Urination is under voluntary control. Impulse sent from the bladder to the sacral spinal cord (where the micturation center lies) gives us the ability to respond to or ignore the impulse.

    Making the act of urination a voluntary act.
  14. Subtitle: Act of Urination

    When the bladder is overfull, what is the consequence?
    The pressure of the bladder exceeds the sphincter pressure and leakage occurs.
  15. Subtitle: Act of urination

    How does reflex incontinence occur?
    This occurs when there is damage to the spinal cord above the sacral region which causes loss to the voluntary control of urination, however, it does not result in the loss of control of the micturation reflex pathway. Micturation can occur without sensation or the need to void.
Card Set
B249, Module II, Urinary Elimination
urinary elimation, B249 - Scientific Knowledge Base