Biomechanics I final.txt

  1. How many degrees is the longitudinal axis of the MTJ from transverse and sagittal?
    • T = 15
    • S = 8-9
  2. What plane is perpendicular to the MTJ?
    Frontal (inversion/eversion)
  3. What is the maximum ROM for the longitudinal axis of the MTJ?
    8 degrees
  4. What is the minimum ROM for the longitudinal axis of the MTJ?
    4-6 degrees
  5. What is the ROM for the oblique axis of the MTJ?
    22 degrees
  6. How do the sagittal and transverse planes of the MTJ function together?
    • Dorsiflexion/abduction
    • Plantarflexion/adduction
  7. What decreases MTJ ROM, supination or pronation?
  8. Does MTJ ROM increase or decrease with supination?
    decrease (increase with pronation)
  9. What is complete/partial compensation?
    • Complete: Forefoot on ground
    • Partial: Forefoot not on ground
  10. At what degree will the STJ compensate to the end of its motion?
    >3 degrees RF valgus/FF varus
  11. How do you compensate for FF valgus and Plantarflexed 1st Ray?
    • LA SOS
    • -Long Axis MTJ
    • -STJ
    • -Oblique Axis MTJ
    • -STJ
  12. What is apropulsive gait?
    When the STJ stays pronated due to FF varus so it does not supinate for good propulsion
  13. In FF Varus complete compensation, where do you see the callus?
    2nd met head
  14. In FF Varus partial compensation, where do you see the callus?
    4 & 5 met heads
  15. In FF valgus with compensation, wehre do you see the callus?
    1 & 5
  16. What happens to the 1st Ray motion with Pronation/Supination?
    • Pro: increased motion
    • Sup: decreased motion
  17. Does the 1st ray evert or invert during plantarflexion?
    Everts ( during propulsive phase)
  18. What is the pathology caused in propulsion if you can't supinate the 1st ray?
    • Apropulsive gait
    • Hypermobility and subluxation
  19. What is the shared theme for compensation b/t FF valgus and 1st ray ROM?
    LA SOS
  20. What is the difference b/t 1st ray in a plantarflexed 1st ray and FF valgus?
    • Plantarflexed = abnormal 1st ray motion
    • FF valgus= normal 1st ray motion
  21. What is metatarsus primus elevatus?
    • 1st ray dorsiflexed
    • callus above 1st met head on dorsal side of foot
  22. What type of axial motion does the 5th ray have?
    Triplanar motion
  23. What are the two axes and their associated movements of the 5th ray?
    • Transverse: dorsiflex/plantarflex
    • Vertical: abduct/adduct
  24. How many degrees of 1st ray dorsiflexion are required for normal gait?
  25. What is the measurement for normal vertical displacement during gait?
    2-5 cm
  26. What do the high/low points represent on a gait chart?
    • High: midstance and swing
    • Low: Double limb support
    • **(2 of each)
  27. What is normal ankle dorsiflexion?
    10 degrees
  28. T/F: The toes bear weight durig contact and midstance
  29. What are the degrees for normal angle/base of gait?
    • Angle: 7-10 degrees
    • Bae: 1-2 inches
  30. What are normal degrees for NCSP?
    0-4 degrees
  31. What does NCSP tell us?
    • Rearfoot deformity (varus or valgus)
    • ***Varus is most common
  32. What are normal degrees of tibial influence?
    1-4 degrees tibial varum
  33. At what degree is RF valgus normal?
    less than 3 degrees
  34. What degrees reach cause maximum RF valgus?
    3-10 degrees
  35. At what degree will RF valgus evert past max?
    >10 degrees
  36. What is tarsal coalition?
    When two bones fuse together
  37. What is Hypermobility?
    • When there is STJ pronation during the propulsion phase
    • (there should be supination)
  38. Is the lateral malleolus smaller/larger and does it extend anterior/posterior?
    • Larger
    • Posterior
  39. What type of axis exists in the ankle joint?
    Oblique to all three planes
  40. In OKC, how many degrees of transverse plane motion are available?
  41. How many degrees of trans motion available in ankle joint at CKC?
    8.4 degrees
  42. What four muscles resist excessive dorsiflexion?
    PT, FDL, FHL, PL (fibularis tertius)
  43. What three muscles help resist plantarflexion?
    EDL, EHL, TA
  44. What muscle is the main dorsiflexor?
  45. What is a pedorthist?
    fits and fabricates shoes, prostheses and accomodative orthoses
  46. What is the job of a CO?
    • ***Certified orthotist
    • orthoses, including braces, to fix problems
  47. What is the job of a CP?
    • ***certified prosthetist
    • Make artificial limbs
  48. What is the job of a certified prescription foot orthotic lab?
    -make functional and accomodative foot orthoses, AFOs, foot fillers
  49. What three materials are used for an athletic orthesis?
    • Polypropylene
    • polyethylene
    • fiberglass
  50. What two materials are used for a dress orthosis?
    • Graphite
    • fiberglass
  51. Which material is used mainly for comfort and pressure relief, polypropylene or plastazote?
  52. What are three rearfoot post materials in order of hardness?
    • Polypropylene
    • Crepe (EVA)
    • Cork (breakdown over time)
  53. What is the strongest topcover orthosis material?
    Neolon (Spenco)
  54. Which is stronger a milled FFO or pressed FFO and why?
    • Milled
    • thinner and the striations make it stronger
  55. What are two reasons to use a neutral shoe?
    • Under pronators
    • high arch feet
  56. What are two reasons to use a stability shoe?
    • Mild pronator
    • normal/low arch
  57. What are two reasons to use a stability plus shoe?
    • moderate pronation
    • normal/low arch
  58. When do you use a motion control shoe?
    Extreme over-pronation
  59. What are the three rules of shoe consideration?
    • 1) Where shoe bends: at ball
    • 2) heel counter: more=stable, less= comfort
    • 3) torque: more = comfort, less = stable
  60. Can you ever evert the FF?
    • No
    • ***against theorem 5 (only inversion)
  61. What is the FF response w/rearfoot varus/valgus?
  62. What is the RF response to FF eversion/inversion?
    • Nothing
    • **unless maxed then the RF follows
  63. What is normal compensation?
    When the body, trunk move in a different direction or weird terrain is encountered.
  64. What is abnormal compensation?
    Due to abnormal structure/function of lower extremity
  65. How are normal and abnormal comp. accomplished?
  66. What is the max degree of inversion of the LAMTJ?
    7 degrees
  67. What is the max degree of supination of the STJ?
    4 degrees
Card Set
Biomechanics I final.txt
Biomechanics I final