Psych Test1

  1. What are the characteristics of life-span perspective?
    • lifelong
    • multidimensional
    • multidirectional
    • plastic (malleable)
    • multidisciplinary
    • contextual
    • characterized by growth, maintenance, and regulation
  2. What are the different conceptions of age?
    • chronological age
    • biological (health)
    • psychological age
    • social age
  3. What are the different approaches to reasearch time spans?
    • cross-sectional - groups are taken at same time
    • longitudinal - groups are followed over time
    • sequential - combines cross-sectional and longitudinal
  4. What is the cohort effect?
    When there are individuals in a study group who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience.
  5. Associate developmental theories with the scientist.
    • Psychoanalytic: Freud and Erikson
    • Cognitive: Piaget
    • Sociocultural Cognitive: Vygotsky
    • Behaviorial: Pavlov, Watson, Skinner
    • Social Cognitive: Bandura
    • Ethological: Lorenz
    • Ecological: Brofenbrenner
  6. Sigmund Freud was notable because:
    • Id, ego, superego
    • Stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
    • everything based aroung libido
    • when conflict is not resolved, fixation results
  7. Erikson was notable because:
    • Stages: trust/mistrust, autonomy/shame & doubt, initiative/guilt, industry/inferiority, indentity/identity confusion, intimacy/isolation, generativity/stagnation, integrity/despair
    • positive view on human development
  8. Piaget was notable because:
    • observed own children to form theories
    • children are "little scientists"
    • assimilation and accomodation
    • Stages: sensorimotor, preoperational , concrete operations, formal operations
  9. Lev Vygotsky was notable because:
    • development is a social process
    • zone of proximal development - range of performance
    • scaffolding
  10. Ivan Pavlov was notable because:
    classical conditioning (dogs)
  11. John Watsonn was notable because:
    showed Pavlov's classical conditioning worked on humans
  12. B.F. Skinner was notable because:
    Operant conditioning
  13. Albert Bandura was notable because:
    • learning results from observing behavior from other people
    • social cognitive theory
  14. Konrad Lorenz was notable because:
    • Ethological Theory
    • studies behavior in natural environment
    • imprinting
  15. Urie Bronfenbrenner was notable because:
    • humans are embedded in a series environmental systems that interact with each other
    • bullseye model
  16. What are the gene-environment correlations and who developed them?
    • passive - decreases after infancy
    • evocative - children's genotypes evoke a reaction from the environment
    • active - children's genotypes influence the kinds of environments they actively seek out

    Developed by Scarr & McCartney
  17. What is heritability?
    • Fraction of the variance of a trait in a population that is attributed to genetics.
    • Applies only to populations, not individuals, and to the particular population being studied.
    • Can estimate contributions of genetics, shared environment, and non-shared environment.
  18. What the development patterns in infants?
    • Cephalocaudal - head to foot
    • Proximodistal - inside to outside
  19. What are some of the reflexive motor skills in infants?
    • gallant (swim)
    • sucking
    • rooting
    • moro (startle)
    • grasping
    • babinski (toes spread and curl)
    • stepping
  20. What are the stages of sensorimotor development?
    • simple reflexes
    • primary circular - action & response involve only baby's body
    • secondary circular - baby gets response from person/object and repeat behavior
    • coordination of secondary circular
    • tertiary circular - trying different methods for same result
    • internalization of schemes
  21. What is violation of expectancy?
    procedure used to study infant cognition in which they are shown an event that should evoke surprise/interest if it violates something the infant knows/assumes to be true
  22. What the stages of language development?
    • crying
    • cooing
    • babbling
    • gestures
    • first words
    • two-word utterances
    • telegraphic speech
  23. What the stages of attachment?
    • undiscriminating social responsiveness - birth - 2/3 mo.
    • discriminating social responsiveness - 2/3 - 6/7 mo.
    • active proximity seeking - 6/7 mo. - 2 yrs.
    • goal-directed partnership - 2 yrs. +
  24. Harry Harlow was notable because:
    studied monkeys separated/isolated from mothers
  25. What the types of attachment?
    • secure
    • insecure resistant
    • insecure avoidant
    • insecure disorganized
  26. What factor that influence attachment?
    • quality of caregiver behaviors
    • type of substitute care
    • infant behaviors
    • events in parents/child's life
    • culture
Card Set
Psych Test1
Material for test 1