Ch. 2 pesonality

  1. Sources of personality data:
    Self-report data (s-data)
    Information provided by a person, such as through a survey or interview

    Individuals have access to a wealth of information about themselves that is inaccessible to anyone else
  2. S-data: unstructured
    open ended
  3. S-data: structured
    response options provided
  4. Limitations of s-data
    • people may not respond honestly
    • people may lack accurate self-knowledge
  5. Sources of personality data:
    Observe-report data (o-data)
    informaiton provided by someone else about another person
  6. Key factors of O-data
    Provide access to information not attainable through other sources

    Multiple observers can be used to assess a person
  7. O-data: selecitng observers
    Professional personality assessors

    People who actually know the target person

    • - Allows for assessment of multiple social personalities
    • - May be biased
  8. Naturalistic observation
    Observers witness and record events that occur in the normal course of lives of the participants

    con: cant control the situations
  9. Artificial observation
    occurs in artificial settings or situations

    advantage: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behavior

    con: sacrificing realism
  10. Sources of perosnality data:
    Test-data (T-data)
    Information provided by standardized tests or testing situations

    Idea is to see if different people behave differently in identical situations

    Situation designed to elicit behaviors that serve as indicators of personality

    • Elicited behavior “scored” without
    • reliance on inference
  11. T-data limitations
    Participants might try to guess what trait is being measured and then alter their behavior to create certain impressions

    Difficult to know if participants define testing situation as intended by experimenter

    Researcher might influence how participants behave
  12. Sources of personality data:
    Life-outcome data (L-data)
    Information that can be gleaned from events, activities, and outcomes in a person’s life that is available for public scrutiny—e.g., marriage, speeding tickets

    Can serve as important source of “real life” information about personality
  13. Issues in personality assessment
    Links among different data sources

    Fallibility of personality measurement

    • All sources of data have limitations
    • Results that replicate through “triangulation” are most powerful
  14. Evaluation of personality measures:
    Degree to which measure represents “true” level of trait being measured

    • Types of reliability:
    • - Test-retest reliability
    • - Inter-rater reliability
    • - Internal consistency reliability
  15. Evaluation of personality measures:
    Degree to which test measures what it claims to measure

    • Types of validity:
    • - Face validity
    • - Predictive or criterion validity
    • - Convergent validity
    • - Discriminant validity
    • - Construct validity
  16. Evaluation of personality measures:
    Degree to which measure retains validity across different contexts, including different groups of people and different conditions

    Generalizability subsumes reliability and validity

    Greater generalizability not always better; what is important is to identify empirically contexts in which a measure is and is not applicable
  17. Research designs in personality:
    Experimental methods
    Used to determine causality—whether one variable causes another

    • Two key requirements:
    • - Manipulation of variables
    • - Ensuring that participants in each experimental condition are equivalent to each other
  18. Research designs in perosnality:
    correlational studies
    - Correlation is a statistical procedure for determining whether there is a relationship between two variables

    - Designed to identify “what goes with what” in nature, and not designed to identify causal relationships

    - Major advantage is that it allows us to identify relationships among variables as they occur naturally

    Correlation coefficient varies from –1 (perfect negative relationships) through 0 (no relationship) to +1 (perfect positive relationship)

    • Correlation does not indicate causation
    • - Directionality problem
    • - Third variable problem
  19. Research designs in personality:
    Case studies
    In-depth examination of the life of one person
  20. Advantages of case studies
    Can find out about personality in great detail

    Can give insights into personality that can be used to formulate a more general theory that is tested on a larger sample

    Can provide in-depth knowledge about an outstanding figure, such as a political or religious figure
  21. Disadvantage of case studies
    Results based on the study of single person cannot be generalized to others
  22. WHen to use experimental, correlational and case study designs
    Each design has strengths and weakness; strength of one is weakness of another

    Which design a researcher uses depends on the research question and the goal of research

    Taken together, three designs provide complementary methods for exploring personality
Card Set
Ch. 2 pesonality
Ch.2 stuff for exam 1