Other Glands

  1. Pineal Gland
    • Synthesizes melatonin at night
    • Causes drowsiness and drop in body temperature
    • Regulates seasonal breeding, hibernation, and possibly puberty
  2. Thymus Gland
    • Site of maturation for T-cells (part of the acquired immune system)
    • T-Cells undergo central tolerance (learn not to attack body)
    • Releases hormones that regulate T-cell activity (there are 3 hormones)
  3. Parathyroid Gland
    • Four glands on posterior surface of thyroid
    • Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH): raises blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone and promoting calcium reabsorbtion by kidneys; opposite effects of calcitonin from thyroid
  4. Hyperparathyroidism
    Excess PTH: excess blood calcium causes neurological symptoms (cognitive impairment, fatigue, depression), kidney stones, osteoporosis
  5. Hypoparathyroidism
    Too little PTH: too little calcium causes pain, muscle spasms, seizures, brittle nails, lethal if not treated
  6. Alpha Cells in Pancreas
    • Alpha cells secrete glucagon when blood glucose falls
    • It stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose in Pancreas
  7. Beta Cells in Pancreas
    • Secrete insulin when blood glucose levels are high
    • Causes liver, muscles, and fat cells to take up glucose and store it as glycogen
  8. Delta Cells in Pancreas
    • Secrete Somatostatin
    • Inhibits the release of glucagon and insulin
  9. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Symptoms
    • Polyuria: excess urination
    • Polydipsia: excess thirst
    • Polyphagia: excess hunger
  10. Clinical Signs of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Hyperglycemia: elevated blood glucose
    • Glycosuria: glucose in the urine
    • Ketonuria: ketones in the urine
  11. Diabetes Mellitus
    Formerly "juvenile" or "insulin dependent" diabetes
  12. Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Formerly "juvenile" or "insulin dependent" diabetes
    • Body produces antibodies to pancreatic beta cells
    • Insulin isn't secrete, so blood glucose skyrockets
    • Patients must monitor blood glucose and receive insulin injections
  13. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Most common form of diabetes Mellitus (95% of cases)
    • Formerly "adult onset" or "insulin independent" diabetes
    • Pancreas makes insulin, but target organs are unresponsive to it
  14. Hormone Regulation
    • For non anterior pituitary controlled hormones, hormone is only around as long as signal is around
    • Alpha cells stop releasing glucagon when blood glucose levels rise
    • Parathyroid stops releasing PTH when blood calcium levels rise
    • For anterior pituitary controlled hormones, negative feedback is used
  15. Negative Feedback
    A hormone "feeds back" to the hypothalamus and pituitary to stop the release of more of the hormone
  16. Monthly Positive Feedback
    • Typically estrogens use negative feedback
    • Once a month, switch to positive feedback to get LH surge (and ovulation)
  17. Intracellular Receptors
    • Steroid hormones and thyroid hormone
    • Often effects gene expression
  18. Membran Receptors
    • All other hormones
    • "Second messenger cascade"
Card Set
Other Glands
Glands not controlled by pituitary