infancy and childhood

  1. grasping reflex
    response to a touch on the palm of the hand
  2. rooting reflex
    babies will move their mouth towards any source of a touch on the face
  3. sucking reflex
    babies are born knowing how to suck, breath and swallow all at the same time
  4. sight reflex
    babies direct their gaze towards bright patterns and faces and trace the outlines of those patterns with their eye
  5. startle reflex
    at an alarming sound, babies arms upward and legs spread outward
  6. babinski reflex
    when foot is stimulated, baby flares toes and pushes foot agains stimulus
  7. enriching environment
    an environment that is filled with various stimuli that engage curiosity
  8. maturation
    the biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively influenced by experience
  9. assimillation
    interpretting new experiences acording to your already existing scheme
  10. accomodation
    changing or adapting your scheme to incorporate new information
  11. sensorymotor stage
    • from birth to two years
    • percieve the world through their sensory and motor interactions with objects around them
  12. object permanence
    the awareness that an object continues to exist even when you can not see it; babies begin to understand at 8 mo
  13. law of conservation
    properties of mass, volume and number remain the same even after changes in the form of the object; fully acquired at age 6-7
  14. representational thought
    • judy deloache
    • understanding that an object can represent something else
  15. formal operational stage
    the stage, at age 12, when you can understand abstract ideas
  16. receptive language
    ability to understand speech
  17. productive language
    ability to produce words
  18. babbling stage
    • at 4 months
    • spontaneous utterances of a variety of sounds
    • heavy in consonants
  19. one-word stage
    from ages one to two
  20. two-word stage
    begining at age two
  21. telegraphic speech
    early speech stage containing mostly verbs and nouns without any sensible order or syntax
  22. critical period
    • an optimal period when certain events are most easily learned and are critical to facilitate proper development
    • ie-imprinting
  23. self-concept
    a sense of ones own identiy and personal worth; first seen at 15-18 mo when children touch their faces in front of a mirror
  24. erik erikson
    • believe social development was psychological and continues throughout life
    • proposes four challenges of positive vs negative
  25. trust vs mistrust
    • 0-1 year
    • depending on ineractions of primary caregivers, children learn if they can trust others or not
  26. autonomy vs doubt
    • 2-3 years
    • self control vs self doubt
    • if a child is praised for acting alone, he will be self confident in his own acts
  27. initiative vs guild
    • 4-5 years
    • making their own decision
  28. industry vs inferiority
    • 5 to puberty
    • competence vs inferiority
  29. socialization
    learning the rules of society
  30. moro reflex
    startle reflex
  31. head up
    1 month
  32. chest up
    two months
  33. sit up
    seven months
  34. crawl
    ten months
  35. walk
    15 months
  36. qualitive
    details about something
  37. quantitative
    numer, amout of information
  38. scheme
    the way in which you see the world
  39. piaget
    • pioneered cognitive development
    • described four stages; sensorymotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
  40. cooing
    first stage in speech, many vowels
  41. preoperational stage
    • 2-6/7 years
    • language and symbolic development
  42. symbolic representation
    kids draw pictures that represent something else
  43. concrete operational
    • 7-11/12 years
    • kids use logic and aritmetic until they can understand abstract things
  44. formal operational
    • 12 years -adult
    • can contemplate future, and abstract and values
  45. konrad lorenz
    imprinting specialist
  46. indiscriminant
    babies until about 6 mo
  47. attatchment to primary caregiver
    6mo to 3 years
  48. fear of strangers
    8 mo
  49. separation anxiety
    10-12 mo
  50. secondary attatchments
    18 mo
  51. developmentally delayed
    until 4 or 5 kids can be behind in everything, then they catch up
  52. oral stage
    • 0-1yr
    • childrens first pleasure is mouth
    • weaning is first frustration
  53. anal stage
    • 2 years
    • source of pleasure is having control of shit
  54. phallic stage
    • 3-5 yrs
    • kids explore themselves; identification
  55. identification
    kids become like their same-sex parent in order to gain attention of the other
  56. oedipal conflict
    boys want mothers attention
  57. electra complex
    girls want dads attention
  58. latency stage
    • 5/6 to puberty
    • sexual desires change to learning
  59. sublimation
    supression of sexual fascinations
  60. genital stage
    • adolescense
    • discover others, pleasurable to share please
  61. fixation
    being stuck in one stage
  62. kohlberg
    theorized moral develpment in six stages and three topics
  63. preconventional morality
    • stage 1: avoid punishment
    • stage 2: gain rewards
    • help someone because they helped you, or eye for eye
  64. conventional morality
    • care for others
    • stage 3: gain social approval
    • stage 4: respect for laws--most stay in this stage
  65. postconventional morality
    • follow your own set of principles
    • stage 5: laws are not absolute, question its justness
    • stage 6: acceptance of ethical principles that apply to everyone
Card Set
infancy and childhood
test date: feb 10