terminology chapter 2

  1. Midsagittal Plane
    a sagittal plane that divides the body,top and bottom,into equal left and right halves.
  2. Anatomical Position
    Standing up erect, facing forward, arms to side, palms toward front.
  3. Transverse Plane
    divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
  4. Superior
    upper, above,toward the head.
  5. Inferior
    Lower, below, toward the feet.
  6. Proximal
    situated nearest the midline or the beginning of the body structure.
  7. Distal
    farthest away the midline.
  8. Lateral
    toward or nearer the side and away from the midline.
  9. Medial
    direction toward or nearest the midline, middle.
  10. LUQ
    • Left Upper Quadrants
    • (Pancrease stomach, spleen.)
  11. Ventral Cavity
    located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis.
  12. Thoracic Cavity
    Aka chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs.
  13. Diaphragm
    is a muscle that separates (divides) the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
  14. Pathology
    the study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function.
  15. Physiology
    study of the function of the structures of the body.
  16. path/o, ~ pathy
    disease, suffering,feeling, emotion.
  17. physi
    nature or physical.
  18. ~ology
    the study of.
  19. Pelvic Cavity
    is the space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarly the organs of the reproductive and excretory system.
  20. abdomin/o
  21. pelv
  22. ~ic
    pertaining to.
  23. Chromosomes (Term)
    • -The genetic structures located with in the nucleus of each cell.
    • -Made up of the DNA molecules containg the body's genes (1000,000).
  24. Dominant Gene
    is inherited from either parent, the offspring will have that characteristic. (sickle cell anemia)
  25. Recessive Gene
    • -Is inheritied from only ONE parent, and a normal gene is inherited from the other parent, the offspring will not have the characteristic. ( doesnt have sickle cell anemia, but does have traits. transmit trait to their offsping)
    • -The same recessive gene is inherited from BOTH parents the offspring will have that characteristic.
  26. Dominant Trait
    • -eye color:brown
    • -vision: normal, color vision, Hyperopia (farsided)
    • -hair: dark, curly, full head of hair
  27. Recessive Traits
    • - eye color: blue
    • -vision: Myopia (nearsided), Monochromatism (one color), Nyctalopia ( blind at night).
    • - hair: light, straight, baldness.
  28. Centromeres (Term)
    • (Arms) help keep chromosomes properly aligned during mitosis.
    • -genetic material
  29. Telomeres
    • (Linear) they protect the ends of chromosomes similar to the way a tip of a shoelace keeps it from unraveling.
    • -protects midbrain
  30. Exocrine Glands
    • -secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead to other organs or exit the body. (sweat & salivary glands)
    • -humans 99% H2O
  31. Endocrine Glands (Term)
    • -secrete hormones
    • -ductless
    • -flow directly in the blood stream.
  32. Hgb
  33. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (Term)
    aka DNA.
  34. Embryonic Stem Cells (Term)
    • -are undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell, however they have the ability to form any adulit cell.
    • -they can proliferate (grow rapidly) in a lab.
    • - more primative then adult stem cells.
    • -comes from the cord blood found in the umbilical cord and placenta of a new born infant.
  35. Hemopoetic Stem Cells
    • divide to form more blood-forming stem cells.
    • -RBC- transport oxygen, oxygenerator.
    • -WBC-infection.
    • -platelets-clotting
  36. Embryonic Sources (Term)
    • -newly formed embryo's
    • -umbilical cord
    • -placenta of a newborn.
  37. Hematopoietic Source
    • -long and flat bones
    • -hip and femur
  38. DNA
    • dna is found in the nucleus of all types of cells except erythrocytes (RBC).
    • - difference erythrocyte has no nucleus.
    • - helix-shape of a spiral staircase. (twisted chromosomes)
    • - double helix- is double strands of helix twisted together
    • -nuclear dna found in nucleus of a cell
    • - dna teams A/T&G/C (base pair)
    • - replication, copy.
  39. RNA
    • ribonucleic acid is a chemical similar to dna
    • -transmites genetic info from dna to proteins produced by the cell.
    • -messenger for the replication process.
  40. Chroma
  41. Soma
  42. Connective Tissue
    • - supports and connects organs and other body tissues. (bone/adipose)
    • -types of connective tissues: dense, adipose, loose, and liquid.
  43. Adipose Tissue
    • adip-fat
    • -ose-pertaining to.
  44. Nerve Tissue
    • contains cells with specialized ability to react to stuimuli and to conduct electrical impulses.
    • - most abundant
    • -axon-sends info away
    • -dendrite- recieves info
  45. Chromosomes
    keep dna tightly wrapped around proteins (histones)
  46. what are genetic disorders?
    a disease caused by a "variation" (different form) or "mutation" (alteration) of a gene.
  47. Genetic Disorder
    • -simple gene disorder-simple gene mutation. mutaion on one or both chromosomes.
    • -chromosomal disorder- excess of deficiency of the genes that are located on the chromosomes, or structural changes....down syndrome.
    • -multifactoral inheritance disorder-(enviroment) heart diseases and cancer.
  48. CF
    • cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive system.
    • - thick sticky mucus that clogs the lungs, leads to infection.
    • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator(CFTR) gene causes CF.
    • -no symptoms
    • -cant treat when pregnant
    • -deadliest gene disorder
  49. Why are RBC Abnormal?
    hemoglobin s molecules stick to one another and form log, rod like structures.
  50. Sickle Cell Anemia
    • -abnormal Hgb (Hgbs)
    • -rbc's essume an abnormal sickle shape
    • -interferes with normal blood flow
Card Set
terminology chapter 2
chapter 2