1. ____ is to operant conditioning as ____ is to social cognitive theory.
    Skinner, Bandura
  2. When psychologists speak of life-span development, they are referring to an approach that emphasizes what?
    The periods of the human life span involving both growth and decline
  3. Baltes and his colleagues assert that the mastery of life often involves conflicts and competition among three goals of human development:
    Growth, maintenance, and regulatiom of loss
  4. The upper boundary of the human life span has historically been, and continues to be, ____ years
  5. Human reproductive cells are called...?
  6. Which of the following is NOT a component of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart? Intelligence tests, Personality tests, Detailed medical histories, Genetic counseling?
    Genetic counseling
  7. A ____ is someone who seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development
    Behavior geneticist
  8. One idea proposed by evolutionary developmental psychologists is that...?
    An extended childhood period evolved because humans require time to learn the complexity of human societies
  9. The trophoblast is...?
    The outer layer of cells that develops during the germinal period
  10. An epidural block is a type of...?
  11. What is the longest period of prenatal development?
  12. In stage ____ of labor, contractions cause the woman's cervix to stretch and open
    Stage 1
  13. What are the two types of gametes?
    Ovum and sperm
  14. The mother always gives a ____ chromosome
  15. What are teratogens?
    Factors that can produce a birth defect
  16. The outer ring of cells around a fetus is the
  17. Nerve cells of a baby begin to form around...?
    Day 15
  18. The heart of a baby forms...?
    At 3 weeks
  19. Until 8 weeks the baby uses ____ to get nutrition
    The yolk sack
  20. ID: Culture
    Encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.
  21. ID: Cross-cultural studies
    Compares aspects of two or more cultures.
  22. ID: Ethnicity
    Rooted in cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
  23. ID: Socioeconomic status:
    Refers to a person's position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
  24. ID: Social policy
    A government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
  25. ID: Biological processes
    Produce changes in an individual's physical nature.
  26. ID: Cognitive processes
    Changes in the individual's thought, intelligence, and language.
  27. ID: Socioemotional processes
    Changes in the individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.
  28. Periods of Development: Prenatal period
    Time from conception to birth.
  29. Periods of Development: Infancy
    Developmental period from birth to 18 or 24 months.
  30. Periods of Development: Early Childhood
    Developmental period from the end of infancy to age 5 or 6.
  31. Periods of Development: Middle and late childhood
    Developmental period from about 6 to 11 years of age.
  32. Periods of Development: Adolescense
    12-21 years of age.
  33. Periods of Development: Early adulthood
    Early 20s and lasts through the 30s
  34. Periods of Development: Middle adulthood
  35. Periods of Development: Late adulthood
  36. First age:
    Childhood and adolescense
  37. Second age:
    Prime adulthood, 20s through 50s.
  38. Third age:
    60-79 years of age.
  39. Fourth age:
    80 and older.
  40. Erikson's Theory:
    Eight stages of development unfold as we go through life. At each stage, a unique developmental task confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved.
  41. Freud's Theory:
    Five stages of psychosexual development.
  42. Piaget's Theory:
    Children go through four stages of cognitive development as they actively construct their understanding of the world.
  43. Vygostsky's Theory:
    Sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
  44. Skinner's Operant Conditioning:
    The consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurence.
  45. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory:
    Behavior, Environment, and cognition are the key factors in development.
  46. Ethology:
    Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
  47. Brofenbrenner's Ecological Theory:
    Holds that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems.
  48. The five environmental systems of
    Brofenbrenner's theory:
    Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem.
  49. Microsystem:
    Setting in which the individual lives.
  50. Mesosystem:
    Involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.
  51. Exosystem:
    Consists of links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context.
  52. Macrosystem:
    Involves the culture in which individuals live.
  53. The chronosystem:
    consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances
Card Set