Anatomy 224

  1. Receptor –
    • a structure specialized to detect a stimulus.
    • May be a free nerve ending.
  2. Sense organ
    • nerve ending + connective Tissue (C.T.), epithelial T., or muscle T.
    • Examples: eye, ear, skin.
  3. Sensory transduction –
    converting ENERGY into INFORMATION.
  4. Modality –
    refers to the type of stimulus or the sensation it produces.
  5. Location –
    Nervous system can distinguish between touch to finger and touch to toe.
  6. Receptive Field –
    body area that a sensory neuron receives input from.
  7. Intensity –
    Encoded in three ways: frequency, number of fibers and type of fibers.
  8. Duration –
    Encoded in way nerve fibers change their firing frequencies over time.
  9. Phasic Receptor–
    burst of electrical activity when stimulus first applied or removed; adapts quickly - stops firing.

    (e.g. tactile, smell and hair receptors)
  10. Tonic Receptor –
    adapt slowly, generate electrical impulses continuously.

    (e.g. proprioceptors)
  11. Adaptation –
    • all receptors adapt eventually, if stimulus is prolonged.
    • Firing frequency and conscious perception decline.
    • Example: HOT bath.
  12. Chemoreceptors-
    Chemical receptors

    Example: Taste, smell, blood
  13. Thermoreceptors
    heat fluxes (loss/gain) receptors

    Example: Warm receptors and cold receptors.
  14. Nociceptors
    • pain receptors; allow awareness of tissue injuries
    • found in all tissues except the brain

    Example: mechanical pain; chemical pain
  15. Mechanoreceptors
    Mechanical stimulus

    Example: pressure, stretch
  16. Photoreceptors
    Photons (light waves)

    Example: rods/cones in retina of eye
  17. Interoreceptors
    internal stimulus, inside body

    Example: visceral pain receptors
  18. Proprioceptors
    position of limbs in space

    Example: Joints, tendons
  19. Exteroceptors
    external stimulus, outside of body

    Example: Skin receptors
  20. Receptor potential
    An initial response of a receptor cell to a stimulus, consisting of a change in voltage across the receptor membrane proportional to the stimulus strength. The intensity of the receptor potential determines the frequency of action potentials traveling to the nervous system.
  21. Sub-modalities
    have spots on skin that are specifically mediated.
Card Set
Anatomy 224
Exam 1 List of terms for lecture