Health Statistics Exam 2

  1. Nuremburg Code
    1st recognized code of ethics
  2. Examples of abuses of clinical trials
    • Thalidomide and birth defects
    • Sloan Kettering Institute
    • Tuskegee sypillis experiment
  3. 1974 National Research Act
    • Establised IRB's
    • Establised National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects
  4. 1978 Belmont Report
    • Set ethical principles and guidelines in research
    • Need to consider the risks and benefits of human testing
    • Need to obtain informed consent
    • Subjects tested must be of sound mind
  5. Measures of Variability
    How wide the observations are spread around measure of central tendency
  6. Range
    Difference between largest and smallest value
  7. IQR
    Spread of the middle (50%) of numbers
  8. Five number summary
    • Minimum
    • 1st quartile
    • median
    • 3rd quartile
    • maximum
  9. Nuremburg Code Outlines
    • Voluntary informed consent
    • No unnecessary research
    • Research should be preceded by surveys and animal experimentation
    • Research protocol should be reviewed by scientifically qualified professionals
    • Research should be stopped if subject is endangered
    • Physical and mental suffering should be prevented
    • Subjects are free to with draw at anytime
  10. Four Phases of Clinical Trials
    • 1. Evaluate safetey, determine dosage, identify side affects
    • 2. Evaluate safety, determine effectiveness
    • 3. Collect more information about safe usage, confirm effectiveness, monitor side affects, compare to alternatives
    • 4. Collect data on effect on specific groups, monitor long term side affects
  11. IRB
    Institutional Review Board
  12. PHSC
    Protection of Human Subjects Committe- SWOSU's IRB
  13. Components required for PHSC application
    • Why the research is being done
    • What the researchers want to accomplish
    • What will be done during the trial and for how long
    • What risks are involved in the trial
    • What other treatments are available
    • What benefits may be expected from the trial
    • The fact that participants have the right to leave at any time
  14. IACUC
    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
  15. Biosafety Committee
    Ensure safety when using potentially infectious microbes in research
  16. Descriptive Statistics
    Use data to describe sample
  17. Inferential Statistics
    Use sample to make conclusions about the population
  18. Mode
    The most common observation or category
  19. Pro's for Mode
    • Easy to obtain
    • Not sensitive to outliers
    • appropriate for both qualititave and quantitative data
    • Can use to predict the value or category of next observation
    • Easy to explain
    • Easy to present
  20. Con's for Mode
    • May not be a clear mode
    • May not be just one mode
    • Does not provide us information about the entire distribution of data
    • Sensitive to how to categorize information
  21. Mean
    The average of the data
  22. Disadvantages using mean
    • Can take on a fractional value, even if original data is discrete
    • Best used for symmetric data, because is sensitive to extreme measures
  23. Median
    Center of data when sorted into an array
  24. Advantages of Median
    • Relatively easy to obtain
    • Can always obtain a median versus mode
    • Is based on the entire distribution of data versus mode
    • Not influenced by extreme values versus mean
    • Appropriate for quantitative and ordinal data
  25. Mean = median
  26. Mean > median
    right skewed
  27. Mean < median
    left skewed
  28. If you have skewed data, what measure of center is going to be affected?
  29. Trimmed mean
    Drop top and bottom values
  30. Winsorized mean
    Change 5% to less extreme value
  31. Range
  32. Quartiles
    25,50, and 75% Q1,Q2,Q3
  33. IQR
    Q3 - Q1
  34. Find outliers by making imaginery boundaries using:

  35. 5 number summary
    • Minimum
    • maximum
    • Q1
    • Q2
    • Q3
  36. Variance
    • s^2
    • sigma squared
    • Never negative
    • Accounts for each observation
    • can be affected by outliers
  37. Standard Deviation
    • Square root of variance
    • same units as original data
  38. Coefficient of Variation
    • s/mean*100%
    • Can compare to different types of data by eliminating the units
Card Set
Health Statistics Exam 2
Health Stats Exam 2