Bio Chp 35

  1. What is an ecosystem?
    community of organisms + the physical enviornment with which they interact
  2. What is biotic? what is abiotic?
    • Biotic = living
    • abiotic = nonliving
  3. What are some major abiotic facors to an ecosystem?
    • Resources: Nutrients
    • Condidtions: temperature

    Temperature and precipitation are the twop two affectors of ecosystems
  4. what is biogeochemical cycling?
    the movement of water and nutrients between the biotic and abiotic world

    "nature's form of recycling"
  5. How does carbon get returned back to the environment?
    • CO2 is released during respiration
    • CO2 is released during composition
  6. What is the carbon cycle?
    • 1. photosynthesis
    • 2. respiration
    • 3. dead organisms
    • 4. fossil fuels
    • 5. burning of fossil fuels
  7. What are the 2 main roles of carbon?
    • makes up portion of atmosphere
    • It feeds everyone
    • impacts global temperature
  8. What is the nitrogen cycle?
    • 1. nitrogen fixation
    • 2. assimilation into plants
    • 3. decomposition by bacteria and fungi
    • 4. nitrifying bacteria
    • 5. denitrifying bacteria
  9. Some harmful effects of Nitrogen
    -synthetic fertilizers: industrial process for nitrogen fixation that converts N gas into formas plants can use

    -Humans are n-fixers: they are #1 n-fixers in the world

    • -nutrient pollution: runoff from agricultural lands.
    • excess nitrogen results in "dead zones" where life is unable to grow
  10. Water Cycle
    • precipitation
    • runoff
    • groundwater
    • lakes
    • evaporation

    evaporation, precipitation, H2O movement
  11. Where is water stored?
    Glaciers and polar ice
  12. How much freshwater is there?
    • 2.5% of all water on Earth
    • 25% of that freshwater is groundwater
  13. What is a wetland?
    an ecosystem that is wet for at least part of the year. It also can be under a permanent cover of water

    examples: swamps or marshes
  14. What is the imporance of wetlands?
    • very productive and imporant habitats for migratory birds
    • filtering systemof the world

    "kidney's of the earth"
  15. Why is there water scarcity?
    • inefficient use of water (bad agricultural practices)
    • humans are using a larger proportion of water (more people)
  16. What are the two laws of energy?
    • The law of conservation: energy never gained or lost, only transformed
    • The law of entropy: energy always flows from more-ordered to less-ordered state
  17. what is the least orderly state of energy?
  18. What are trophic levels?
    different feeding levels.

    • There are two types: producers & consumers.
    • Producers: plants and other photosynthesizers
    • Consumers: all other organisms
  19. Why do trophic levels get smaller?
    • -not all members consumed
    • -some energy is lost throughout the process
    • -for each jump in trophic level, the amount of available energy drops 90%
  20. What are detritivores?
    consumes dead or "cast off" organic matter. Detritivores break down inorganic componenets that can then be recycled.
  21. what is the energy-flow model?
    Measures energy as it is used by and transferred among different members of an ecosystem
  22. Why are large, predatory animals rare?
    • very little solar energy assimilated by plants is avaible to the higher trophic levels
    • not enough energy to have a big population
  23. What is the atmosphere?
    layer of gases surrounding the Earth.

    • Composed of:
    • -troposphere
    • -stratosphere
  24. what is the troposphere?
    lowest atmospheric layer, contains most of the gases

    • 99% nitrogen and oxygen
    • small amount of CO2

    other trace gasses: argon, methane, etc.
  25. What is the stratophere?
    higher up, contains ozone layer (O3)
  26. What is the ozone layer?
    a layer of gasses that screens out 99% of the sun's UV radiation.
  27. How can the ozone layer be depleted?
    by the use of human-made compounds

    • Chlorofluorocarbons (freon) : found in refigerators
    • Aerosols

    CFC's converted the ozone layer into O2
  28. What is the Earth's tilt impact on climate?
    since the earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees there are different types of climates found throughout the world.

    • Changes in:
    • temperature
    • precipitation
  29. What are circulation cells?
    Patches of moving air that are greatly affected by the differences of warming.

    • rains where it rises
    • dry where it descends
  30. What is climate?
    average weather condition in a given area.

    (helps dicate what the biotic world looks like)
  31. how certain are scientists about global warming?
    at least 90%
  32. What are a biomes?
    large terrestrial regions of the earth that have similar climates and hence similar vegetative formations.
  33. What are the six different biomes?
    • Tundra
    • Taiga
    • Temperate deciduous forest
    • Temperate grassland
    • Desert
    • Tropical rain forest
  34. What is the greenhouse effect?
    where gasses such as CO2 and methane trap heat that comes to the Earth from the sun. Thus warming the Earth much the same as a greenhouse
  35. What are the primary drivers of global warming?
    • Burning of fossil fuels
    • Deforestation
  36. What is the projected range of temperature due to global warming?
    an increase by 1.8 degrees C to 4.0 degrees C
  37. What are the effects of global warming
    • Glacial melt
    • sea level rise
    • more "extreme" conditions
    • habitat loss - species loss
    • ocean acidification
Card Set
Bio Chp 35
Chapter 35 from the biology textbook along with the in class notes. Chapter is about Ecosystems and biomes.