1. Who defeated the Powhatan Indians in 1644 and prohibited further white settlement?
    Sir William Berkeley
  2. What was the largest insurrection until the Revolution?
    Bacon's Rebellion of 1676
  3. This wealthy, graduate of Cambridge University arrived in Virginia in 1673
    Nathaniel Bacon
  4. After leading his army twice to Jamestown, ____ died suddenly and ____ regained power.
    Bacon, Berkeley
  5. This war began in 1637 due to conflict over trade and land
    The Pequot War
  6. This war lasted 3 years and became known as the deadliest war of the 17th century
    The King Philip's War
  7. Indentured servitude evolved as an answer to ____?
    Labor shortages
  8. The Sugar Act of 1764 did what 3 things?
    • 1. Eliminated the illegal sugar trade between colonies and French/Spanish West Indies.
    • 2. Strengthened enforcement of the duty on sugar
    • 3. Established new vice-admiralty courts to try smugglers.
  9. The Currency Act of 1764 did what?
    Ordered colonial assemblies to stop issuing paper money and to retire all of it already in circulation
  10. The Stamp Act of 1765 did what?
    Imposed a tax on all printed documents in the colonies such as newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, and licenses
  11. The Declatory Act of 1766 did what?
    Allowed Parliament to declare its sovereignty over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
  12. ID: Columbian Exchange
    Brought a two-way interchange of culture and products both enriching and devestating the Eastern and Western hemispheres. Culturally, the exchange ultimately created new cultures as a result of the interaction and mixing of European, African, and Amerindian ways and peoples.
  13. ID: Joint-stock company
    Significant as symbols of the English reliance on commerce for prosperity, their critical role in establishing 17th century English colonies, and as commercial enterprises
  14. ID: "Headright"
    This procedure allowed prosperous planters to build up huge estates while they also acquired dependent laborers and justified the notion that the wealth of a few justified the exploitation of many others
  15. ID: House of Burgesses
    The first elected legislature withing what was to become the United States.
  16. ID: Plymouth Plantation
    A North American colony established by the Pilgrims, their idea was to live a pure, primitive, and Godly life apart from the corruption of Europe.
  17. ID: Puritans
    Early settlers of Massachusetts and most of New England
  18. ID: Roger Williams
    An early advocate of the seperation of church and state, he founded the village of Providence in what would become Rhode Island
  19. ID: Quakers
    Also known as the Society of Friends, they were a liberal colony in Pennsylvania offering freedom of religion, government based on the consent of the governed, and open land laws
  20. ID: William Penn
    A prominent Quaker leader, he founded a colony in North America for people of all religions and nations based on toleration, representative government, and peaceful relations with Indians.
  21. ID: Indentured servants
    Initially a much-needed source of labor in the colonies, about 25% of them, once freed, remained poor and often became criminals
  22. ID: Bacon's Rebellion
    Resulted in a reduction in the authority of the governor, an expansion of the colony, and the increased use of African slaves.
  23. ID: King Philip's War
    Significant because it is an example of the colonists' willingness to use force to acquire land and because the military power of the New England Indians was broken forever.
  24. ID: Mercantilism
    The economic theory that says states must beat the competition in the race for limited wealth.
  25. ID: The Great Awakening
    Significant because it created a shared experience for many across all the colonies, it reemphasized the idea of everyone being equal before God, and it encouraged mass resistance to authority thereby laying the groundwork for the American Revolution
  26. ID: The Enlightenment
    Beliefs that by understanding the universe and people controlling their own affairs played a major role in bringing and shaping the American Revolution.
  27. ID: The Seven Years' War
    Fourth of the wars for empire between France and England which resulted in English control of the eastern half of North America and precipitated imperial legislation leading to eventual revolution.
  28. ID: Stamp Act
    Became the focus of the first pre-Revolutionary protest and is seen as the opening of the Revolutionary Era.
  29. ID: Townshend Revenue Acts
    Colonists saw them as another example of the British undercutting their economy and curtailing their rights of self-government, and accordingly protested.
  30. ID: Boston Massacre
    This murky incident was transformed by Paul Revere and Samuel Adams into a graphic symbol of British oppression and brutality.
  31. ID: Tea Act
    Lowered the cost of tea while maintaining a tax on tea and saving the East India Company from bankruptcy. The colonial radicals saw the Act as a plot to entice the colonists to pay a tax by buying cheaper tea.
  32. ID: Coercive/Intolerable Acts
    In retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed these four measures which led to boycotts of British goods and the First Continental Congress in the colonies
  33. ID: Second Continental Congress
    This body issued the Declaration of Independence, wrote the Articles of Confederation, and governed the U.S. during most of the American Revolution.
  34. ID: Lexington and Concord
    The beginning of the military phase of the American Revolution.
  35. ID: Loyalists
    Americans who supported the British crown throughout the Revolution, they were a primary reason for the third phase of the War for Independence.
  36. ID: Battle of Trenton
    Washington's victory here turned the tide in the war and led to the birth of the U.S.
  37. ID: Battle of Saratoga
    Resulted in the defeat of General Burgoyne, ended the British Northern Campaign, and influenced the French to recognize the independence of the U.S.
  38. ID: Articles of Confederation
    Established a confederated government under which the individual states were sovereign and the central government was extremely weak with largely theoretical powers delegated to it by the states.
  39. ID: Battle of Yorktown
    The final major battle of the American Revolution which convinced the British to negotiate with the Americans.
  40. ID: Treaty of Paris (1783)
    U.S. gained its independence and territory to the Mississippi but also that the U.S. commissioners in Paris who negotiated with the British revealed that they were prepared to use any means to achieve success.
  41. ID: Republicanism
    The belief system that a government's citizens should be self-reliant, incorruptible, and practitioners of civic virtue.
  42. ID: Northwest Ordinance
    An impressive triumph of the Articles of Confederation, it brought order to western settlement and incorporated frontier Americans into an expanding federal system.
  43. ID: Shay's Rebellion
    Uprising of farmers in Massachusetts to prevent foreclosures on land which posed a threat to social order and motivated some to call for a Constitutional Convention.
  44. ID: Virginia Plan
    Changed the whole purpose of the Constitutional Convention from reforming the Articles of Confederation to replacing them with a stronger national government.
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