1. infection and inflammation of the female reproductive organs
    Pelvic inflammatory disease
  2. risk for PID?
    miltiple partners, frequent intercourse, douche, IUD and childbirth
  3. low grade fever, pelvic pain, foul discharge, n/v, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia
    S/S of PID?
  4. if PID spreads through the ABD cavity what are you at risk for?
    peritonitis, pelvic abscess
  5. what are treatments of PID
    oral antibiotic, iv and hyterectomy
  6. how PID diagnoses?
    during a pelvic exam or pelvic ultrasound
  7. how should the pt be lying to facilitate drainage of the pelvis?
    semi fowlers
  8. if vaginal suppository is inserted how long should we lie supine?
    30 min
  9. the growth the endometrial tissue, the normal lining of the uterus, outside of the uterus within the pelvic cavity?
  10. career womans disorder
  11. common in women over 30, who have delayed childbirth, higher in socioeconomic classes of caucasian women?
  12. where does enodometriosis implants outside where?
    the uterus wall
  13. S/S of endometriosis
    servely monthy symptoms, lower backache, painful intercourse, feelings heaviness in the levis, spotting,
  14. can cause infertility?
    endometriosis that can cause scar tissue and adhesions
  15. treatments of endometriosis
    pelvic palpation exam, laparoscopy, could be hysterectomy or cauterization
  16. narfarelin acetate inhibits cyclic hormone release, nasal administration
  17. danazol inhibits release of gonadotropin; given after surgery to relieve symptoms of residual disease
  18. gardnerella vagninalis is the type of bacteria found?
    bacterial vaginitis
  19. S/S of bacterial vaginitis
    discharge (white or gray), dysuria, itching in vagina
  20. caused by a parasite
  21. infection of urogenital tract
  22. most common plan for trichomoniasis infection in men and women?
    • women- vagina
    • men- urethra canal
  23. appears in 5-28 days
  24. heavy ywlloe-green or gray discharge, discomfort in sex, vaginal odor, dysuria, itching and low abd pain
    S/S of tric
  25. men S/S of trich?
    discharge, painful urination and ejaculation
  26. Vulvovaginal candidiasis?
    vaginal yeast infection
  27. the fungus in a yeast infection?
    candida albicans
  28. what increases a yeast infection?
    pregnancy, DM, antibiotics or contraceptives, douches, hygiene sprays, weak immune
  29. S/S of yeast infection?
    itching, burning, dysuria, painful intercourse, discharge some(cottage chees) a musty sweet odor
  30. treatment of yeast infection?
    Monistat, clotrimazole or diflucan
  31. most associated with staphlococcus aureas?
  32. what can cause TSS?
    birth control or tampons
  33. high fever, faint feeling, watery diarrhea, HA and muscle aches
  34. how is TSS diagnosed?
    through blood, urine, GU and throat cultures
  35. what is the goal of TSS?
    control BP, replace fluids, stop infecton and maintain ventilation
  36. Chronic cystic mastitis or lumpy breast syndrome?
    Fibrocystic Breast disease
  37. the cause of this disease is benign cahnges with ovarian hormones that subsides with menopause.
    fibrocystic breast disease
  38. most common in women ages 30-50 and rare in postmenopausal women
  39. lumps moveable, yellow-green discharge from breast ?
    S/S of FBD
  40. what is done for FBD?
    a pap smear to R/O cancer cells, needle aspiration of lumps and surgical breast biopsy
  41. treatment of FBD?
    eliminate caffeine including chocolate, wear fitted bra, Vit E (breaks down the tissue) and low fat diets
  42. 2nd major cause of death in women?
    breast cancer
  43. survival rate for localized cancer?
  44. survival rate for all stages of cancer?
  45. most common presenting symptom in breast cancer?
    painless mass or thickening
  46. where does breast cancer most commonly occur?
    most frequent in the upper outer quadrant of the breast and may extend into the tail of the breast and spread upward into the axilla
  47. stage 1 of breast cancer?
    tumor smaller than 2 cm, no lymph or mets involved
  48. stage 2 of breast CA?
    tumor 2-5cm, 1-3 lymph test pos for ca and not mets involved
  49. stage 3 of breast ca?
    tumors larger than 5 cm, no lymph, no mets involved or tumor 0-5 cm, lymph test pos and no mets
  50. stage 4 breast ca?
    tumor of any size growing in chest wall or skin, lymph nodes may or may not be postive and mets are evident
  51. Pumpectomy?
    surgical removal of the canerous mass
  52. simple mastectomy?
    removes the tumor mass and small portion of the adjacent tissue
  53. modified mastectomy?
    entire breast tissue and nearby lymph nodes are removed; muscles of chest wall are left intact
  54. radical mastectomy?
    entire breast, lymp, and pectoralis muscles are removed
  55. Complications of lymph node removal?
    more lymp removed the great chance of lymphedema, elastic sleeve can be worn, ROM exercises reduce edema and Na restricted diet
  56. if cancer cells respond to estrogen then what drugs are used?
    antiestrogen used to treat breast cancer
  57. if the estrogen does not respond then what is it used for?
    used as a chemotherapy
  58. nursing management of breast cancer?
    BSE, mammograms, TCDB, dressing changes and keep affected arm above to encourage blood flow
  59. benign tumors that grow in or on the uterus?
    Fibroid Tumors
  60. non cancerous tumors that develop within or attach to the wall of the uterus, a female reproductive organ
    uterine fibroids
  61. how do fibroids grow?
    slow and estrogen increases growth that can cause pre term labor
  62. what kind of diet do we encourage with fibroids?
    high iron and supplements to prevent anemia
  63. treatments of fibroids?
    hysterectomy, myomectomy or D&C
  64. S/S of fibroids?
    menorrhagia, pelvic pressure, dysmenhorrhea, abd enlargment, constipation and urinary frequency
  65. risk of cervical cancer?
    early sexual activity, multi sex partner, history of STI or HIV, African, hispanic, chronic inflammation
  66. abnormal bleeding, bleeding with intercourse, odor, lower back pain, difficulty voiding, hematuria, rectal bleed
    S/S of cervical cancer
  67. cervical ancer is most often seen in the ages of?
  68. CIS means?
    cancer cells remain in the cervix
  69. Conization?
    excision of a cone shaped section of thee abnormal cervical tissues, perferable at child bearing age
  70. crysurgery?
    used in cervical cancer and is a freezing of the cells with liquid nitrogen
  71. treatments of cervical cancer?
    laser, cryosurgery, hysterectomy, radical pelvic surgery, palliative measures, chemo, radiation, conization
  72. to shrink tumor and slow growth?
  73. pt on radiation should be on complete bed rest? true or false?
  74. HRT in 2002 noted that it should be stopped due to what?
    increased risk of breast cancer
  75. earliest sign is vaginal bleeding and a risk factor is being jewish or caucasian
    endometrial cancer
  76. treatment of endometrial cancer?
    IV fluid and possible blood transfusion, could be hysterectomy, chemo, radiation or HRT to supress growth
  77. causes more deaths than any other cancer?
    ovarian cancer
  78. silent killer?
    oarian cancer
  79. cancer seen most often in women 45-65
    ovarian cancer
  80. what is the percentage of mestastaisis spreading beyond the pelvis in ovarian cancer?
  81. most frequent spot ovarian cancer starts?
    colon then moves to stomach an diaphragm
  82. what is the reoccurence in ovarian cancer? so what are th follow up visits and how often?
    2 years, and seen every 2 mo for 2 years with survival of 45%
  83. ovarian cancer diagnostic tools?
    pelvic exam, followed by ultrasound, CT scan to determine if mass is solid or fluid filled, GI studies, chest exray, IVP, laparoscopy and blood test CA
  84. treatment of ovarian cancer?
  85. TAH and BSO with possible omentectomy, radiation, chemo, immunotherapy, surgery
  86. Chemo drugs used for ovarian cancer?
    Cytoxan, adriamycin, taxol percutaneous or intraarterial
  87. Bromptons mixture? and who gets it?
    cocaine, morphine, alcohol and flavoring for pain in ovarian cancer pt
  88. menstrual cramps of painful menstration?
  89. this is more common in nullipara women and women not involved in intercourse
  90. spasms of the uterus, carvical stenosis, uterine fibroids, emotions, endometriosis, PID or IUD
  91. Primary symptom is levic pain before and at onset of menses
  92. treatment of dysmenorrhea?
    aceetaminphen, oral contraceptive, aleve
  93. ansence of menstruation
  94. primary diagnosis if no menses by 16, primary cause is turner syndrom or incomplete x chromosome
  95. what can cause amenhorrhea?
    anatomic abnormalities, nutritional deficits, excessive exercise, endocrine dysfunction, pregnancy or lactation
  96. whats the progestin challenge?
    takes depo for 5 days. period for 4-5 days. where the prolactin levels exceed 400 due to tumors and should not be above 15
  97. S/S of PMS occur when?
    7-10 days proir to menstration and end when flow beings
  98. treatment for PMS?
  99. Diet for PMS?
    limit sugar, caffeine, dairy, acidic fruits or vegetables. increase whole grain, nust, pasta, legumes, root vegetables fruits (apples, pears, poultry and seafood)
  100. inflammation of the tubular structure that connects the testicle with the vas deferns
  101. the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder: most common from gonorrhea and chlamydia, e coli, homosexual urinary reflux
  102. if epididymitis is left untreated what can be caused?
    testicular tisue necrosis, septicemia and death, can lead to sterilyity
  103. treatment of epididymitis?
    antibiotics and procaine injection around spermatic cord
  104. inflammation of one or both testes caused by infection
  105. causes of orchitis?
    gonorrhea, trauma, surgical mainuplation, tuberculosis and mumps
  106. sudden scrocal pain radiating down the inguinal cancal, scrotal edema, chills, fever, n/v
  107. in unilateral inflammation does sterility occur?
  108. in bilateral involvement does sterility occur?
    usually yes!
  109. treatment of orchitis?
    bed rest, scrotal support, ice to area, antibiotics and prcaine injection around spermatic cord
  110. inflammation of the prostate ?
  111. common complication of urethritis caused by chlamydia or gonorrhea
  112. S/S of prostatits?
    perineal pain, fever, dysuria, urethral discharge
  113. what can happen by putting in a cath of suspected urethritis pt?
    spread of infection
  114. management for prostatitis?
    bed rest, elevate scrotum, cold packs, fluid intake, sitz baths, massage of prostate by physician, antibiotic, analgesics and stool softeners
  115. progressive enlargment of the prostate gland that occurs with aging?
  116. hesitancy, nocturia, decreased stream force of urination, urinary frequency, UTI risk
    S/S of BPH
  117. first test done for BPH?
    DRE or digital rectal examination
  118. other test for BPH?
    Prostate specifice antigen, residual urine, cystoscopy, IVP, ultrasoundography
  119. treatment of BPH?
    TURP transurethral resection of the prostate used in 90%
  120. what instruement is used in TURP? how is it used?
    resectoscope, inserted thru the penis includes cutting and cauterization device, to slice pieces of the prostate enlarging the urethra and cauterizes the blood vessels as well
  121. what is hung during TURP?
    NS or glycine to irrigate the bladder
  122. abd incision?
  123. risk or prostatectomy
    hemorrhage, water intoxication, infection, thrombosis, damage to surrounding structures, sexual dysfunction, urinary incontinence
  124. what is Proscar (Finasteride) used for?
    shrinks the prostate in some men
  125. other meds used in prostate cancer in men?
    Hytrin and Cardura (used to treat hypertension and relax smooth muscles along urinary tract)
  126. whats used to treat postop bladder spams?
    Belladonna or opium suppositories and narcotic analgesics
  127. If a foley is inserted how much should be drained initially?
    1000 cc
  128. 2nd leading cause of cancer death in men?
    prostate cancer
  129. 70% of cancer is diagnosed in men older than what?
  130. Diagnosis of prostate cancer?
    PSA (prostate specific antigen), transrectal ultrasonic exam, prostatic biopsy
  131. how often should a mans prostate be examined?
    yearly and digital rectal exam
  132. dysuria, weak urinary stream, urinary frequency, complete urethra; obstruction, hematuria
    S/S of Prostate cancer
  133. may be performed to decrease the androgenic effect and decrease tumor growth
  134. Pharacology for prostate cancer?
    DES, lutenizing releasing hormone, lupron, eulixin, chemo
  135. caring for the pt with prostate cancer?
    NO rectal temp, I&O, PSA level, urine bleeding, pain, peri area clean and dry
  136. less than 1% of cancers in men but most common in young 15-35
    testicular cancer
  137. causes in men with undescended testicles or mothers who took hormones during pregnancy
    testicular cancer
  138. when protein and AFP (alphafetoprotein and HCG) levels are up indicates?
    testicular cancer
  139. treatment of testicular cancer?
    Biopsy, orchiectomy, chemo, radiation
  140. rare but in correlation with poor hygiene and delayed or no circumcision
    penile caner
  141. painless, nodular growth on foreskin, fatigue and weight loss
    S/S of penile cancer
  142. treatment of penile cancer?
    penectomy, if radiation or chemo is used must be used together not effective alone
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