neuroscience 2

  1. Mitochondria is
    energy transformers food - - - ATP (energy)
  2. mitochondria details of inner membranes
    • -inner membrane highly folded
    • -large surface area
    • -space in center =matrix
  3. Mitochondria outer membrane
    • -space between the two membranes
    • -about the size of bacteria
    • have their don DNA
  4. ATP is
    • the energy currency of the cell
    • -debit card-put in money,store it, take out when needed
  5. Energy stored in ATP used for
    • -biochemical reactions
    • -pumps
  6. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate
  7. ATP phosphates and hydrolysis?
    the two outermost phosphates are held to rest of the molecule w/ high energy bonds
  8. Net yield of atp per glucose molecule in aerobic and and anaerobic conditions ?
    • -aerobic condition -36atp/glucose
    • -O2 picks up eletrons at end of electron chain
    • -anaerobic condition 2 Atp/glucose
    • -lactic acid is produced by fermentation of glucose
  9. Lactic acid
    • muscle cell can use lactic acid, but not neurons-brain stops working without O2
    • Neurons -lack enzyme for convering pyruvate to lactic acid.
  10. evolutionary origin of mitochondria
    • -originated from free-living aerobic bacteria that were engulfed by anaerobic cells
    • -ended up living in symbiosis w/ englufing cell
  11. what did the engulfed cell- the are taht ended up being a mitochondria get out of this?
    • -Shelter
    • -nutriants: mitrochondria take nutrients from cytosol and turn them into energy.
  12. what happen 2 billions years ago ?
    partnership between a primitive anaerobic eukaryotic predator cell and aerobic bacteria. At that time earth's atmospher started to become rich in oxygen
  13. Mitochondri are mobile and plastic
    • -move
    • -change shape
    • -fuse-separate
  14. what do mitrochondria follow when they move?
    • they follow microtubuli
    • liver cells -1000 mitroch/cell, take up 20% of volume
  15. Metabolic pathways in mitochondria
    • -outer membrane-large pores -same composition as cytosol
    • -pyruvate +fatty acids from glycolysis pass throught outer membrane
    • -inner membrance more selective, but contains transport molecules
  16. Glycolysis happens where?
    glycolysis happens in cell's cytosol and the rest of respiration in mitochondria
  17. in matrix of mitochondria
    enzymes convert pyruvate + fatty acids into cetyl coa and next acetyl coa goes into citri acid cyle
  18. citric acid cycle generates
    • -electrons picked up and carned by NADH and FADH2
    • -NADH+ FADH2 are transferred to inner mitochondrial membrance
  19. Electron- transport chain
    (oxydative phosphorylation) purpose
    purpose generate proton gradient across inner mitochondrial membrance
  20. what happen in electron -transport chain?
    • Electrons carried by NADH, FADH2 are passed along 3 main complexes each on has higher affinity for electrons than previous one
    • -electrons finally transferred to oxygen ( highest affinity for electrons)
    • -transfer of electrons along chain is coupled to proton (H+) movement
    • -H+ pumped across inner membrance from matrix to intermembrane space.
  21. Pumping of protons generates
    • 1- voltage gradient across inner membrance
    • -inside more negative b/c outflow of positive protons
    • 2-ph gradient across inner membrance
    • -lower ph in intermembrane space
    • 1+2 act to pull H+ back into matrix
    • now we can use force of proton gradient to drive ATP synthase to generate ATP from food.
  22. Structure of atp synthase Lollipop head
    • -f1, projects on matrix side of inner membrance
    • -transmembrance H+ carrier =FO
    • -long arm=Stator
  23. process of ATP synthase
    • protons flow down proton gradient througt FO
    • -as subunit in FO bind protons they move results in retation
    • -proton gradient converted mechanical energy
    • -converted to shaft in center of lollipop head (blue on right)
  24. how many subunits in lollipop head hav binding sites for ADP and how many molecules of ATP per revolution?
    • 3, and the changes in protein conformation due to rotation binds p, to ADP.
    • 3 molecule of atp per revolution
    • -ATP synthase can generate 100 molecules of ATP per second
  25. ATP synthase can run in reverse when?
    if atp concertration is hight and proton gradient is low
Card Set
neuroscience 2