1. History a typical eukaryoti cell
    • -organelles
    • -specializations of nerve cells (neurons)
  2. Which century and does the cell theory apply to the nervours system?
    Neurons could not be visualized under microscope until invention of the Golgi stain
  3. camillo golgi
    • Golgi stain:
    • -silver solution
    • -raindomly stains 1% of al cells
    • -stains the entire cell
    • -made it possible for first time to see neurons
  4. Ramon y cajal
    • -used the golgi stain
    • -proposed neuron doctrine
  5. The Neuron Doctrine
    • -Proposed by cajal
    • - neuron doctrine the nervous system is made up of indivdual cells ( like every other tissue in the body) correct
  6. The reticular theory
    stating that the nervous system is one continuous network was wrong.
  7. Nucleus
    • -contains DNA
    • -genes are trnscribed
    • -Mrna exported out throught pores in nuclear envelope
  8. Rought endoplasmic reticulum
    • -site of protein synthesis
    • -dotted w/ribosomes
  9. Golgi apparatus
    • -camillo golgi.
    • -Modifications of proteins (addition of carbohydrates, phosphorlation)
    • -post office packaing labeling, sending of macromolecules to different parts of cell
  10. dendrites is and axon is
    • dendrites =input
    • axon=output
  11. Synapse is
    • site of signal transfer
    • Electrical signal then chemical signal (neurotransmitter) then electrical signal
  12. dendritic spines
    smaller volume, reactions at synapse confined.
  13. Dendrite from a mentally retareded infant
    • -fewer
    • -longer thinner falure to establish synaptic circuits
  14. Glia cells
    • -cells in the nervous system that are not neurons
    • -"glue"
    • -3x-10x as many glia as neurons
  15. Myelination glia, CNS? and PNS?
    • -oligodendrocytes- cns
    • -Schwann cells -pns
    • they wrap themselves around axons of neurons, insulation, and speeds up signal
  16. Multiple sderosis
    • -autoimune disease
    • -Damage to myelin
  17. Astrocytes
    • different type of glia cell
    • -fill the space between neurons regulate chemical composition of extra cellular solution
  18. Connectomes
    wiring diagrams for every single neuron in a system.
  19. how many neuron connectiong brain and how many muscles for controlling ear movements?
    • 15 neurons in a nerve connecting brain and 2 small muscles controlling ear movements.
    • 200 muscle cells
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