1. What is any prominent, roughened projection from a bone?
  2. What is a large, knuckle-like articular prominence?
  3. A blank is a tube-like canal through a bone
  4. What is a smooth flat articular surface
    fovea, facet
  5. What is the pulley-shaped structure of the femer?
  6. How are synovial joints classified by their number of articular surfaces?
    into simple and compound
  7. What structural type of joint is characterized by its mobility?
  8. What are the strong bands of white fibrous tissue uniting bones?
  9. What plate of fibrocartilage partially or completely divides the joint cabity of the stifle and temporomandibular joint?
    menisci or discs
  10. What structure attaches two bones?
  11. How do muscles owrk mechanically
    by pulling and not pushing
  12. In anatomy how does the length of a name compare to the importance of the structure.
    longer the name the less important the structure is
  13. Rotation is movment of a part around its blank axis
  14. What is movement of an extremity in a plane describing the surface of a cone
  15. How do respiratory muscles work due to their location?
    Inspiratory mm - located cranially increase the size of the thorax by pulling the ribs cranially and laterally therefore the diaphram must move caudally

    Expiratory muscles locaed caudally decrease thoracic volume by pullling ribs caudally and medially
  16. Why are the flexors and extensors different in the leg and forepaw?
    • in the leg the extensors extend the pes and flex the digits or vise versa
    • in the forepaw the extensors and flexors act on both the joints in the same fashion
  17. What are the muscles that connect the eye and the body and move the eyes and are innecerated by the 3rd 4th and 6th cranial nn
    extrinsic muscles of the eye
  18. What is the swelling of the dorsal root
    dorsal root ganglia which are cell bodies located in the periphery for sensory fibers
  19. Ventral branches of spinal nerves interlace to form?
  20. Plexuses are formed by the ventral branches of the spinal nerve in every region except which?
  21. What is the fx of the ANS
    Maintain the homeostasis of an organism
  22. Autonomic functions are mainly set up by ?
    reflex arcs - visceral sensory and motor nn
  23. The visceral effectors of the ANS usually have a _ innervation?
  24. What are the two motor fibers of the autonomic nervous system?
    pre and post ganglionic
  25. Where are the cell bodies of the parasym preganglionic fibers?

    Where are the cell bodies of the symp preganglionic fibers?
    in the nuclei of cranial nerves 3, 7, 9 10 in the brain stem and the sacral spinal cord segment,

    intermediolateral gray matter of the spinal cord
  26. The ans although said to be involuntary is still controlled by?
    higher centers in the brain- cerebral cortex hypothalamus and medulla oblongata
  27. What are the neurotransmitters of the ANS
    ACh for preganglionic and post in parasympathietic

    NorE for post gang of sympathetic
  28. What gland is part of the symp ANS
    adrenal gland (medulla)
  29. What results from sympathetic stimulation of the adrenal gland?
    Nor E is dumped into the blood stream and a massive sympathetic response results
  30. Why is the parasym activity more discrete than the sympathetic?
    ACh is destroyed locally while NorE is dumped into the blood stream by the adrenals
  31. Whare are the ANS structures in the neck?
    vagosympathetic trunk and vertebral n
  32. With what is the vagosympathetic trunk intimately associated with?
    common carotid a in the carotid sheath
  33. What is the parasympathietic nerve to the head?
    cranial n 3, 7, 9 ,10
  34. What is the sympathetic innervation to the head?
    postganglionic from cranial cervical ganglion
  35. What is the parasympth to the thorax

    vagus n ( cardiac and pulmonary plexus)

    sympathetic trunk, cervico throacic stellate ganglia, ansa subclavia, middle cervical ganglion, cardiac and pulmonary plexus
  36. Symp innervation to abdomen

    splanchnic nn and collateral ganglion and plexus

    vagus to the end of the transverse colon pelvic n and descending colon
  37. What is the sympthetic to the pelvis

    hypogastric nerves

    pelvic nerves
  38. List the parts of the large intestine
    cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal
  39. what marks the division between the vagina and the vestibule
    external urethral orfice
  40. what suspends the female reproductive tract int he abdomen
    broad ligament or connecting peritoneum
  41. What serosa connects the visceral and parietal vaginal tunics?
    mesorchium or connecting vaginal tunic
  42. What is the vaginal ring
    point of evagination of peritoneum through inguinal canal forming opening between peritoneal and vaginal cavities
  43. What is the only accesory sex gland in the dog? cat?
    prostate if ampulla or ductus deferens not included cat also has bulbourethral gland
  44. What are the two pincipal divisions of the circulatory sx
    blood vascular and lymph vascular systems
  45. Whar are capillaries?
    microscopic vessels exchanging oxygen and wastes with tissues
  46. What is interstitial fluid?
    fluid bathing the body's cells
  47. In carnivores what are the branches of the aortic arch
    brachiocephalic and left subclavian
  48. Name the main branches of the terminal aorta
    2 external 2 internal iliac and 1 median sacral aa
  49. What are the terminal branches of the internal iliac aa
    internal pudendal and caudal gluteal aa
  50. What is the main branch to the pelvic viscera
    and specifically the uterus
    • vaginal or prostatic aa
    • uterine artery off vaginal
  51. What is the main branch of the vaginal aa
    uterine aa
  52. What is the blood supply to the uterus in carnivores?
    uterine aa and uterine branch of the ovarian aa
  53. What is the name of the coiled testicular vein around the testicular aa in the spermatic cord?
    pampiniform plexus
  54. How are the deep veins of the limb named
    for the arteries they travel with
  55. Outline where the cephalic vein is
    arises on the palmar side of the paw and travels proximally wrapping around to the cranial side by the accessory cephalic v and then continues up the cranial forearm and elbow to eventually empty into the external jugular
  56. What superficial vein arises from the dorsum of the paw and joins the cephalic vein proximal to the carpus
    accessory cepahlic vein
  57. What veins form the external jugular vein
    maxillary and linguofacial vv
  58. What are the large valveless venous passages located within the dura that drain the brain and skull
    dural sinuses
  59. What makes up the lympathic system
    lymphatic tissues and vessels ( lymph, lymph nodes, and vessels, nodules, peyes patches tonisils thymus and spleen)
  60. Describe lympathic vessles
    similar to veins but thinner walls more valves and lymph nodes along their course
  61. Describe a typical lymph node
    ovoid or bean shaped encapsulated lymphoid tissue scattered along the course of the medium size lymph vessel
  62. List the superficial lymph nodes and their locations
    parotid below the ears, mandibular, superficial cervical which is cranial to the shoulder joint, popliteal superficial inguinal
  63. What are the lymph nodes located around the tracheal bifurcation and drain the lungs
    tracheobonchial lymph nodes
  64. What are the lymphoepithelial structures or masses of unencapsulated lymphoid tissue within various mucous membranes that protect the entrachnces to the body
  65. what is the largest lymphoid organ in the body
  66. What lymph nodes are located in the cranial mediastinum
    cranial mediastinal lymph nodes
  67. what is another name for the skin
  68. how does the epidermis recieve nutrition
    blood vessels in the dermis
  69. what are the ong course hairs sensory to touch called
    tactile hair or vibrissae
  70. where are the tactile hairs found
    above the eyes on the muzzle behind the carpus
  71. What is the opening surrounded by the eyelids
    palpebral fissure
  72. what is the clear rostral part of the eyeball
  73. How does the third eyelid protect the eye
    it covers the eye when eyeball is retracted
  74. what is the groove in the upperlip and between the nostrils
  75. What are the functions of the teeth in dogs
    prehensile tools and weapons
  76. the ears can be directed to sounds _ of eachother
  77. where do you palpate the floating ribs on the standing dog
    caudal and dorsal to the costal acrch
  78. list the mammae of the dog
    2 thoracic, 2 abdominal, 1 inguinal
  79. what is the base of the tail on top line of the body called
    tail head
  80. what is the perineum
    closes the pelvic outlet around the terminal parts of the urogenital and digestive tracts
  81. what does the external perineum or perineal region include
    anus and the vulva in the female, even though the vulva projects below the level of the pelvic floor to just above the scrotum in the dog
  82. what are the boundaries of the perineum
    • base of the tail, dorsal
    • tuber ischii lateral
    • past the vulva in the female and to the base of the scrotum in the male past the scrotum in cats - ventral
  83. what are the specific openings of the anal sacs
    mucocutaneious junctions - where the mucous membrane meets the skin at the 4 and 8 position
  84. what is the sheath of skin covering the penis
  85. what is the female counterpart to the scrotum
  86. with what is the word brachium easy to confuse
    brachy meaning short
  87. What structure does the carups metacarpus and digits compose
  88. where would you find the tibia and fibula
  89. what is the distal part of the hind limb consisting of the tarsus metataruss and digits called and what does it corespond to in humans
    pes , the human foot
  90. what is the common name for the tarus (ankle_)
  91. which limbs are more likely to have dew claws
  92. what are the spaces between the digits
    interdigital spaces
  93. name the toughest skin of carnivores
  94. Although radiology seldom yields a final diagnosis how does it contribute
    ddx list
  95. how is teh visible image or radiograph created
    Passage of ionized radiation through the body, interaction of the escaped radiation with intensifying screens, the action of subsequent emitted light with film and the effect of developing chemicals
  96. a radiograph is basically a negative, therefore the whiter or darker the film tells us what
    • darker- more overexposed
    • whiter- underexposed
  97. how does a radiograph machine create a directed beam of electrodes
    • passes electrons from a cathode through a vacuum to hit the anode giving off x rays- photons, as a beam and creating heat
    • beam leaves lead box through shuttered opening
  98. describe a radiograph cassette
    hold the radiograph film sandwiched between intensifying screens
  99. How is the object to be radiographed placed in relationship to the x ray machine and the cassette
    placed on the cassette between it and the tube head
  100. what is the part of the x ray macine allowed restriction of the size of the beam leaving the machine
  101. describe a radiograph
    a piece of plastic with a bilayer of silver halide emulsion
  102. how does the silver halide emulsion on a radiographic film react with x ray or light and become a radiograph
    x ray or ligh activates the silver halide, process developer crystalliees activated silver halide = silver metal, and it appears black, and sticks to the plastic, fixer clears the unreactive silver halide leaving only the plastic film
  103. What is a fluorescent light source for viewing radiographs
  104. what is a strong source of ligh placed behind the film to view overexposed areas - ie darker than desired
    spotlight or hot light
  105. what are the three things that can happen to part of the beam hitting the object
    reflection further transmission or absorption
  106. What is scatter
    relection or compton scatter- the redirection of a percentatge of the primary beam striking an object's surface
  107. What affects penetration or transmittance
    both the object's thickness and density
  108. what is the inverse square law
    intensity varies with the square of the distance or doubling the distance quarters the effective power
  109. what is divergence in relationship to radiology
    spreading the primary beam or scatter as it moves away from the source
  110. because of divergence in radiology how does placement on the cassette affect the radiograph
    closer the object to the cassette the less the divergence thus the smaller or closer to normal size and sharper the image is
  111. is an overexposed or an underexposed film better
    overexposed if not in film there is no way to get it in the film but if its in may be able to use a spot light
  112. What is denser fat or water
    water as fat floats
  113. what are the water densities seen in a radiograph
    soft tissue densities are viscera muscles and fluids, all appear similar not easily distingusihed
  114. how does the heart appear radiographically why
    soldi gray shadow disc as fluid filled ventrical not demarcated from the soft tissue walls
  115. what identiication does a film need in addition to r and l markers
    client name animal date facilty timed study and time elapsed after procedure
  116. what can be sued to properly place the animal in relation to the beam direction without having to use people
    sand bags and positional devices
  117. what are artifacts on radiographs
    not part of the animal ie dirt wet hair ointments static iodine processing mistakes and physical damage of the screens
  118. how are laterals usually taken
    med to lateral so the animal can put its limb on the cassette
  119. silhouetted caudal and cranial structures indicate the beam was directed how
    lateromedially or mediolaterally
  120. what does silhouetteed mean when discussing radiographs
    edges of a structure are contrasted against air or soft tissue
Card Set
Feb 9/2010