L&P Quiz 2

    • S-situation, setting, scene, time, place
    • P-participants
    • E-ends, purpose or goal of interaction
    • A-Act sequence, message form and content
    • K-key, manner or spirit in which speech is carried out
    • I-instrumentalities-how message is transmitteed, oral written signing
    • N-norms (interaction, interpretation) common knowledge,
    • G-genre (proverbs, ads, joke, story, lecture)
  2. Politics
    Process, art, or sciene of winning and holding control over the government

    • others" competing for power, a "mass of lies evasions folly hatred and schizo-Orwell
    • Plato-"nothing but corruption"
    • one concerned with the studyi of people and the lives they lead in organized communities
  3. Politician
    • A person who is practically engaged in running a country, district or town
    • Person experienced in running the business or art of gov't.
    • Practitioner of the art of politics, despised by those outside political arena -Brewer's
    • Primarily interested in political office for selfish reasons-Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
    • statesman who places nation at his service-Pomidou
  4. Political
    • issue that demands serious analysis and requires an action possibly leading to a change for good in the society
    • an issue relating to the gov't or the conduct of gov't
    • an issue relation to party politics
  5. Politicize
    • An iusse is ptcz if it is given a political tone or character
    • " " if it is assumed to be wrong and is therefore being analyzed and/or changed for the benefit of society
  6. Political Discourse
    • a collection of genres such as:
    • political speeches, cabinet meetings, political slogans, national budget
  7. Political discourse con't.
    immigration, social security, medicare, environment, prescription drugs, education, national security, propaganda
  8. Important Factors in Making a Speech Political
    • Context features: political settign, participants
    • Social doman of politics
    • Political implications (influence decisions)
    • Aim or function
    • Places politicians and their views
  9. Political Labels
    Reference for journalists, political commentators, and politicians.

    • Labels specify a politician's ideological values
    • used for in-group/out-group references
    • may carry positive or negative connotations
  10. Left
    • Socialists or radicals.
    • Political actors on the left typically advocate for gov't or collective ownership and control of the administration and distribution of services and goods.
    • ideologically between capitalism and communism, referred to as radicals, advocate extreme measures to restore/change political state of affairs.
  11. Left winger
    socialist or radical with strong views to the left or a radical on the extreme edge of leftist idealogy
  12. Right/Right Winger
    • Conservaties and often belong to nationalist groups. often support or adhere to existing and established institutions, values-especially so called traditional valued
    • nationalists often elevate or place their nation above all other nations
    • place primary emphasis on promoting their nation's interests and culture rather than those of other nations
    • Right winger: A right winger is a conservative with strong views to the right or a conservative with conservative ideology.
  13. Center
    • between Left and Right
    • could be either on the right of left or on the left of right
    • often tend to hold less radical views
    • left of center, right of center
    • participants and context of above determines positive/negative connotations.
  14. Wets/Dry
    • Wets:lacked the courage to support Thatcher
    • Dry: her supporters
  15. Rhetoric
    the art of persuasion
  16. Aristotle's three classes of rhetoric
    • Ethos: Persuasion through personality. A kind of proof created by a speaker’s
    • appearance as credible and appealing. An
    • appeal to the reputation, disposition, or character of a speaker or writer.

    • Pathos: Persuasion through arousal. Proof relying on appeals to personal motives
    • and emotions. An appeal, which touches the feelings of the reader or listener
    • -- “emotion, experience.”

    • Logos: Persuasion through reasoning. A form of proof that makes rational appeals
    • based on facts and logical argument. An appeal to evidence and the
    • reasoning based directly on that evidence “word, thought, reason”
  17. More rhetoric
    • Effective
    • or persuasive speaking and writing.

    • “The
    • expression and persuasive communication of ideologically based mental models
    • and social representations” (Van Dijk, 2000).

    • Rhetoric
    • involves the use of special arguments, special speech forms, or figures of
    • style traditionally associated with political text and talk.

    • Classical
    • rhetoric was common in the courtroom and was developed as an 'art' to persuade
    • people in a political assembly.

    • In
    • political discourse, rhetorical features have persuasive functions, and
    • therefore political significance in a political context of communication.

    • Ideological
    • models and social representations and ideologies affect the choice of semantic
    • and pragmatic figures of speech.
  18. Rhetorical features 1-5
    • 1.Repetition
    • Sounds
    • (alliterations and rhymes)
    • Sentence
    • forms (parallelism)
    • Meaning
    • (semantic repetition) for drawing attention to preferred meanings and to
    • enhance construction of such meanings in mental models and their memorization
    • in ongoing persuasion attempts or later recall.
    • 2. Euphemism (dysphemism)
    • 3. Hyperbole
    • 4. Deletion-deleting information for partisan reasons
    • 5. Indirectness and implicitness
  19. 6-10
    • 6. Substitution: using and expressing a concept different from what one would expect. irony, metaphor.
    • 7. Positive self-presentation and negative other presentation: make self look good, make opponent look bad
    • 8. Making appeals to the emotions of the recipients by starkly emphasizing the situation of those they speak for. elderly, refugees
    • 9. Generalize from single examples
    • 10. Arguing from impressions and not evidence
  20. 11-14
    • 11. Metaphor
    • 12. Simile
    • 13. Personification
    • 14. Paradox
  21. Parallelism
    phonic, syntactic, semantic

    semantic parallelism: using words from the same semantic field

    contrastive pairs or antithesis: using a two part utterance in which the parts are in opposition

    • vocabs strong in meaning
    • quoting figures (number game)
    • quoting figures for self-praise or other dispraise

    rhetorical questions-should not be answered, answer is implied

    • political pronouns:
    • personal/impersonal-I, we, third person reference
    • Agentive pronouns-"It has been found necessary to our borderin Mexico.
    • Metonymic reference: the budget will help raise the standard of living of the american people.

    • Closeness and distancing:
    • personal involvement
    • accepting responsibility and giving agency to actions

    Politician being in touch with whole country: accepting blame, fame
Card Set
L&P Quiz 2
l and p