- S-situation, setting, scene, time, place
- E-ends, purpose or goal of interaction
- A-Act sequence, message form and content
- K-key, manner or spirit in which speech is carried out
- I-instrumentalities-how message is transmitteed, oral written signing
- N-norms (interaction, interpretation) common knowledge,
- G-genre (proverbs, ads, joke, story, lecture)
Process, art, or sciene of winning and holding control over the government
- others" competing for power, a "mass of lies evasions folly hatred and schizo-Orwell
- Plato-"nothing but corruption"
- one concerned with the studyi of people and the lives they lead in organized communities
- A person who is practically engaged in running a country, district or town
- Person experienced in running the business or art of gov't.
- Practitioner of the art of politics, despised by those outside political arena -Brewer's
- Primarily interested in political office for selfish reasons-Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
- statesman who places nation at his service-Pomidou
- issue that demands serious analysis and requires an action possibly leading to a change for good in the society
- an issue relating to the gov't or the conduct of gov't
- an issue relation to party politics
- An iusse is ptcz if it is given a political tone or character
- " " if it is assumed to be wrong and is therefore being analyzed and/or changed for the benefit of society
- a collection of genres such as:
- political speeches, cabinet meetings, political slogans, national budget
Political discourse con't.
immigration, social security, medicare, environment, prescription drugs, education, national security, propaganda
Important Factors in Making a Speech Political
- Context features: political settign, participants
- Social doman of politics
- Political implications (influence decisions)
- Aim or function
- Places politicians and their views
Reference for journalists, political commentators, and politicians.
- Labels specify a politician's ideological values
- used for in-group/out-group references
- may carry positive or negative connotations
- Socialists or radicals.
- Political actors on the left typically advocate for gov't or collective ownership and control of the administration and distribution of services and goods.
- ideologically between capitalism and communism, referred to as radicals, advocate extreme measures to restore/change political state of affairs.
socialist or radical with strong views to the left or a radical on the extreme edge of leftist idealogy
- Conservaties and often belong to nationalist groups. often support or adhere to existing and established institutions, values-especially so called traditional valued
- nationalists often elevate or place their nation above all other nations
- place primary emphasis on promoting their nation's interests and culture rather than those of other nations
- Right winger: A right winger is a conservative with strong views to the right or a conservative with conservative ideology.
- between Left and Right
- could be either on the right of left or on the left of right
- often tend to hold less radical views
- left of center, right of center
- participants and context of above determines positive/negative connotations.
- Wets:lacked the courage to support Thatcher
- Dry: her supporters
the art of persuasion
Aristotle's three classes of rhetoric
- Ethos: Persuasion through personality. A kind of proof created by a speaker’s
- appearance as credible and appealing. An
- appeal to the reputation, disposition, or character of a speaker or writer.
- Pathos: Persuasion through arousal. Proof relying on appeals to personal motives
- and emotions. An appeal, which touches the feelings of the reader or listener
- -- “emotion, experience.”
- Logos: Persuasion through reasoning. A form of proof that makes rational appeals
- based on facts and logical argument. An appeal to evidence and the
- reasoning based directly on that evidence “word, thought, reason”
- or persuasive speaking and writing.
- expression and persuasive communication of ideologically based mental models
- and social representations” (Van Dijk, 2000).
- involves the use of special arguments, special speech forms, or figures of
- style traditionally associated with political text and talk.
- rhetoric was common in the courtroom and was developed as an 'art' to persuade
- people in a political assembly.
- political discourse, rhetorical features have persuasive functions, and
- therefore political significance in a political context of communication.
- models and social representations and ideologies affect the choice of semantic
- and pragmatic figures of speech.
Rhetorical features 1-5
- (alliterations and rhymes)
- forms (parallelism)
- (semantic repetition) for drawing attention to preferred meanings and to
- enhance construction of such meanings in mental models and their memorization
- in ongoing persuasion attempts or later recall.
- 2. Euphemism (dysphemism)
- 3. Hyperbole
- 4. Deletion-deleting information for partisan reasons
- 5. Indirectness and implicitness
- 6. Substitution: using and expressing a concept different from what one would expect. irony, metaphor.
- 7. Positive self-presentation and negative other presentation: make self look good, make opponent look bad
- 8. Making appeals to the emotions of the recipients by starkly emphasizing the situation of those they speak for. elderly, refugees
- 9. Generalize from single examples
- 10. Arguing from impressions and not evidence
- 11. Metaphor
- 12. Simile
- 13. Personification
- 14. Paradox
phonic, syntactic, semantic
semantic parallelism: using words from the same semantic field
contrastive pairs or antithesis: using a two part utterance in which the parts are in opposition
- vocabs strong in meaning
- quoting figures (number game)
- quoting figures for self-praise or other dispraise
rhetorical questions-should not be answered, answer is implied
- political pronouns:
- personal/impersonal-I, we, third person reference
- Agentive pronouns-"It has been found necessary to our borderin Mexico.
- Metonymic reference: the budget will help raise the standard of living of the american people.
- Closeness and distancing:
- personal involvement
- accepting responsibility and giving agency to actions
Politician being in touch with whole country: accepting blame, fame