many prenatal risk factors contribute to a clefts which include _____ and _____ factors
in what trimester does development get altered?
what are five examples of environmental factors that can cause alterations in development
- tobacco, alcohol, drug use
- phenytoin, vitamin A, corticosteriod
- folic acid deficiency
- lack of adequate prenatal care and instruction
cleft lip=fusion failuer of ______ process and _____ process
what weeks does the lip form?
when does the palate form?
when can cleft lip be dectected in utero?
end of 2nd month
when can cleft palate be detected in utero?
end of 3rd month
what is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies?
t/f cleft palate is closed at 2-3 months
false 18 months
when is a cleft lip surgically joined?
what is the primary surgery for cleft lip/palate? secondary?
- primary-closes gap
- secondary-lip nose palate and jaw surgery
what is it called when there is difficulty controlling motor parts or parlysis due to brain injury
what causes cerebral palsy?
many differnet sources of brain injury and it can occur at anytime during ones life
what are causes of cerebral palsy before birth? 4
- lack of oxygen to fetus
- nutritional dificiencies of mother
what are some causes of cerebral palsy at early infancy? 4
- traumatic injury
- lead poisoning
what is spasticity?
damage to cerebral cortex
what are the symptoms of spacicity?
- spasms of muscles
- awkward stiff movements
- lack of control over muscles
- falling down frequently
- overweight because of sedetary life
whast is athetosis
damage to basal ganglia
what are the symptoms of athetosis
- constant involuntary unorganized muscular movement
- speec difficulties
- thin due to constant movement
t/f a pt with spasticity would be very thin due to constatn movement
FALSE overweight due to sedentray life because of falling
t/f a pt with athetosis would be overweight due to sedentary life
FALSE very thin due to constant movement
what is ataxia
damage to cerebellum
what are the symptoms of ataxia
- loss of equilibrium,
- difficulty walking and sitting up straight
- inactive due to loss in balance
what type of cerebral palsy has rigid stiff muscles hypertonic state resists movement and lacks in activity
what type of cerebral palsy has quivering of entire body or just certain areas?
what type of cerebral palsy has flabby weak muscles unalbe to stand or keep head raised drooling occurs and problems swallowing, chewing and speaking
t/f there are ways to cure cerebral palsy with meds
what is something helpful to use during treatment of a pt with cerebral palsy
mental retardation occurs in fewer than ____% of those with cerebral palsy
in what % of people do seizures occur with cerebral palsy
what are 8 oral characteristics of cerebral palsy
- problems opeing mouth, swallowing, chewing
- mouth breathing
- tongue thrusting
- fracture teeth
- periodontal infections
what would cause periodontal infections in a pt with cerebral palsy
Dilantin (seizure control) causes gingival hyperplasia and inadequate biofilm removal
what is muscular dystrophy
progressive severe wekaness and loss of use of muscle groups. usually limited to skeletal muscle rarely involving cardiac muscle
t/f muscular dystrophy usually is seen in females
false-in males but female can be carrier and pass on to son
what is lordosis a characteristic of?
duchenne muscular dystrophy
what are four characteristics of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
- facial muscles involved expecially orbicularis oris
- trouble completely closing eye
- difficulty raising arms
- progresses slowly
what is the treatment for muscular dystrophy
t/f the symptoms of muscular dystrophy can be treated but not the disease
t/f for a patient with muscle dystrophy you want to make sure the chair is as low as it can go.
FALSE raise chair hig and lift pts legs
what is it called when a protion of the spinal cord sticks out of an opening in the spinal column?
myelomeningocele spina bifida
what can help prevent spina bifida
folic acid and prenatal vitamins
what are five characteristics of myelomeningocele?
- bony deformities due to paralysis
- loss of sensation-pain cannot be felt
- bladder and bowel paralysis
- loss of kidney function