The aspect of speech production that refers to continuity, smoothness, rate, and/or effort with which phonologic, lexical, morphologic, and/or syntactic language units are spoken.
A "speech disorder" characterized by deviations in continuity, smoothness, rhythm, and/or effort with which phonologic, lexical, morphologic, and/or syntactic language units are spoken.
Refers to breaks in the continuity of producing phonlogic, lexical, morphologic, and/or syntactic language units in oral speech.
Refers to the speed with which sounds, syllables, or words are spoken.
These behaviors include the entire range of reactions, strategies, "tricks," and avoidance or escape behaviors that stutterers perform either when they stutter or in anticipation or fear of stuttering.
Accessory (Secondary) Behaviors
The amount of perceived exertion a speaker experiences during speaking.
Dimensions of speech that extend across phoneme or allophone (i.e. "segment") boundaries, and include such things as rhythm, prosody, melody, and inflection.
The pattern (timing and duration) of stressed and unstressed syllables in speech.
This refers collectively to syllable stress, juncture, and intonation contours in speech.
Degree to which speech (and language) sounds like that of normal, native speakers.
Fluency disorder characterized by a rapid and/or irregular speech rate, excessive disfluencies, and often other symptoms such as language or phonological errors and attention deficits.
Stuttering, often transient, that began with-or is maintained as a result of-a specific, identifiable neurological insult or lesion.
Stuttering that is clearly related to psychopathology.
_________ is synonymous with stuttering and is the commont term for the disorder in Great Britain.
Characterized by an abnormally high frequency and/or duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech.
What are the 3 major problems in defining stuttering?
1. Lack of exclusiveness in the behaviors exhibited by stutterers and non-stutterers.
2. It's a perceptual phenomenon that is perceived according to various factors.
3. Lack of specificity--what behaviors or concepts should be referred to in defining "stuttering?"
What are the 2 major types of Stuttering?
1. Etiologic (Causative)
2. Descriptive (Behavioral)
Stoppages in stuttering take the form of...
- REPETITIONS of sound, syllables--one-syllable words
- PROLONGATIONS of sounds (or articulatory postures)
- "BLOCKS" of airflow and/or voicing in speech.
This type of stuttering is distinguished from other fluency disorders such as cluttering, neurogenic stuttering, and psychogenic stuttering.
Repetitions, prolongations, and blocks are examples of what type of behaviors?
Core behaviors (also called "primary behaviors" and "kernel behaviors")
This term refers to how listeners more frequently identified speech camples as "stuttering" when they contain a higher proportion of repetitions and/or prolongations.
What are the 2 types of Secondary Behaviors (also called "accessory" or "associated" behaviors)?
Attempts to terminate the stutter and finish the word. (eye blinks, head nods, interjections of extra sounds, such as "uh) which are often followed by the termination of a stutter and are, therefore, reinforced.
Learned behaviors when a speaker anticipates stuttering and recalls the experience that it entails and resorts to behaviors he has previously used to escape moments of stuttering or they may try something different, such as changing the word they were planning to say.
What are some feelings/attitudes that stutterers associate with stuttering?
Whose definition of stuttering is “Stuttering occurs when the forward flow of speech is interrupted abnormally by repetitions or prolongations of a sound or syllable, or an articulatory posture, or by avoidance and struggle reactions.”?
Van Riper (and is Descriptive)
Whose definition of stuttering is “Disruption in the fluency of verbal expression which is characterized by involuntary, audible or silent, repetitions or prolongations in the utterance of short, single sounds or syllables, or single-syllable words.”?
Wingate (and is Descriptive)
Whose definition of stuttering is “Stuttering is what the speaker does while trying not to stutter again.”?
Johnson (and is Causative)
Whose definition of stuttering is “Stuttering occurs in the performance of serially ordered speech activity when the anticipation of failure evokes certain preparatory sets that lead to reactions of tension and fragmentation in speech.”?
Bloodstein (and is Causative)
Whose definition of stuttering is “Repetitions and prolongations are the chief symptoms of stuttering and they represent the oscillations and fixations found in approach-avoidance conflicts.”?
Sheehan (and is Causative)
Whose definition of stuttering (associated with the Two-Factor Theory) is “Stuttering is that class of fluency failures that result from classically conditioned negative emotions.”?
Brutten and Shoemaker (and is Causative)
Whose definition of stuttering is “Stuttering is characterized by an abnormally high frequency and/or duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech.”?
What are some Physiological Concomitants (changes in the body) associated with stuttering?
- Eye movements
- Cardiovascular phenomena
- Biochemical changes
- Electrodermal responses—(GSR)
Onset of stuttering can happen any time during childhood, but when is the earliest age that stuttering typically is noticed and why this age?
18mos-2yrs old (beginning of multiword utterances)
What age range is the onset of stuttering most likely to occur?
Between 2-5 yrs old
What does research data show in relation to age and the risk of stuttering to have passed?
- After age 4—1/2 the risk has passed
- After age 6—3/4 the risk has passed
- After age 12—almost all the risk has passed
What is the term used to indicate how widespread a disorder is and how many people have it currently?
What’s the prevalence of stuttering throughout the school years?
What’s the prevalence of stuttering in adults (after puberty)?
Less than 1%
Index of how many people have stuttered at some time in their lives (“Are you or have you ever been…”)
Adults account what percent of incidence of stuttering?
What percent/ratio of stutterers recover without treament?
60% / 3 out of 5
Recovery from stuttering without treatment is known by what terms of recovery?
Spontaneous or Natural Recovery
What factors have been suggested as associated with recovery from stuttering?
- Speaking more slowly
- Stable speech motor system
- Parent used less complex language
- Being right handed
- More mild stuttering
- Having relatives who recovered
- Good phonological, language, & nonverbal skills
- Being Female
What's the sex ratio of stutterers?
3 Boys for every 1 Girl (3:1)
What are some of the speculations regarding difference in sex ratio?
- West-genetic predisposition
- Johnson-parental attitudes & expectations
- Schuell-Social pressures
- Geshwind-excessive testosterone in utero
In Variability and Predictability of Stuttering, what term is associated with fearful premonition of a stuttering block and forecasting with surprising accuracy which words in a reading passage they will stutter on?
In Variablility and Predictability of Stuttering, what term is associated with a person tending to stutter on many of the same words each time in repeated readings of a passage?
What term is also known as "spillover" and is associated with disfluencies tending to occur next to previously stuttered words?
In Variablility and Predictablility of Stuttering, what term is associated with stuttering frequency decreases when they read a passage over many times due to a behavioral learning process?
What are some of the effects of adaptation?
- Prognostic Factor
Spencer Brown found correlations between stuttering and 7 grammatical factors during reading aloud...what linguistic factors do adults stutter more frequently on?
- 1. Consonants
- 2. Initial Word Position
- 3. Contextual Speech
- 4. Content Words
- 5. Longer Words
- 6. Beginnings of Sentences
- 7. Stressed Syllables
What are some of the conditions under which stuttering is reduced or absent, known as Fluency-Inducing Conditions?
- Dialect Difference
- Pronlonged slow speaking
- Delayed Auditory Feedback
- Reinforced speech
What are some of the various explanations that have been proposed to account for the impact of fluency-inducing conditions?
- Reduced propositionality
- Simplified Motor Plan
Role of environmental conditions and cues which influence stuttering suggest it is more than ____________ and acknowledges a ______________ factor.
- Learning Factor