Early Italian Ren to High Ren

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    • Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral (Duomo). 1417-36
    • Bruneelleschi created the design for the dome when the Cathedral was built before the Ren. Idea of the dome came from the Pantheon in Rome. Double shelled structure to make lighter, centered on octagonal drum 140 ft in diameter, used scaffolding and self buttressing, after 1/3 of the dome the rest went up in horizontal courses, built with an oclus, massive drum supports the dome, Herring bone brich work used throughout to lessen the cracking, Gothic ribs used throughout to distrubte weight out and down all were connected at the lantern, connects Ren to Roman archecture, influenced other churches
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    • Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, gilt bronze. 1425-1452, Florence
    • Did aftering winning a competition by the clothworks guild, bronze painted in gold, made from one piece (cheaper), 10 scenes of the Old Testiment, linear one point perspective, receeding scale, orthonganial lines, multi-scene narrative with no story focus so the focus is perspective
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    • Donatello, David, bronze, ca 1440s-1460s
    • nearly life size, contropposto, meant for a 360 view, looks weak and young, homoerotic?, represents military victor against Milan David represents Florence, first freestanding male nude
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    • Masaccio, Brancacci Chapel, frescoes, Tribute Money and Expulsion from Paradise. Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
    • Frescoes are 4 foot tal figures representing the life of St. Peter. Perspective is in the builing, the vanishing point is behind Jesus' head, atmospheric perspective, tax collector a jew can tell by his garment, fresco gecco (dry), halos are becoming part of the 3d world.
    • Foreshortening in the angel, post expulsion, in emmense greif, giornata (a days worth of work)
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    • Perugino, the Delivery of the Keys, Sistine Chapel, 1481, Rome
    • one-point linear perspective (can been seen with the tiles), orthogonals to the vanishing point of the church, scene set in three parts the fore, middle and background is clear, light source, ancient Roman inspired arch, subdued colors, idealized landscape and cloudy skies, variety of figure positions
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    • Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, Facade, Palazzo Medici-Ricardi, 1470-1472
    • Each story is 20 ft high, classical inspired detail, rusticated stone blocks, three layers go from rough to smooth, medici arms done in sgraffito
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    • Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, tempera/panel. ca 1485
    • cartoonish - outlines the image, put gold leaf in her hair, neoplatanism, liner brushwork
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    • Piero della Francesca, Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro, oil/tempera/panel. ca 1472
    • Flemish in detail and luminosity texture and lanscape, protrays Itlian fashion, profile format (to hide Federico's scars), emphasized underlying geometric forms, panoramic landscape.
    • reverse: Triumph of Federico and Battista humanist interests of the Urbino court
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    • Brunelleschi, Interior of San Lorenzo, Florence, 1419-1444
    • Basilican plan with long nave flanked by side aisles that open into shallow lateral chapels, based on his math square module that was applied to the whole design, classical style: craved in pietra serena (gray Tuscan sandstone), arches of the nave arcade are carried on tall, slender Corinthian columns made even taller by the intersion of an impost block between the column capital and the sprining of the round arches
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    • Donatello, St. George ca 1415-1417, Orsanmichele, Florence
    • Commissioned by armorers and sword markers guild, would have had a sword, helmet and scabbard to advertise guild, contrapposto, below is a shallow relief: the centers of the foreground are slightly undercut to emphasize their weight, the landscape are in a lower reilief at a attempt for atmospheric perspective
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    • Masaccio, Trinty, c 1425-1428 Church of Santa Maria Novella
    • scaled figures into rational architectural and natural setting using linear perspective, gives the illusion of a stone funerart monument and altar table set below a deep aedicula (framed niche) in the wall, used linear perspective, classical orders, the figures are organized in a measured progression and through space, "I was once that which you are, and what I am you also will be"
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    • Fra Angelico, Man of Sorrows, c 1441-45
    • Specific parallels: use of expansive stone wall to restrict narrative space to a shallow foreground corridor, the descripition of the world beyond the wall as a dark sky that contrasts with the illuminated foreground and the use of a draped cloth of honor to draw attention to a narrative vignetter from the life of Jesus to seperate it out as an object of devotion.
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    • Paolo Uccello, The Battle of San Romano, tempera/silver foil/wood. 1438-1440.
    • pink ground and blooming hedges, Niccolo is the focus, linear prespective, hedges of organges, roses, and pomegrantes are a symbol of fertility thus commissioned at the time of Linoardo Bartolini Salimbeni's wedding 1438, Vasari says that Uccello was obsessed with perspective
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    • Botticelli, Primavera, 1482
    • like a Flemish tapertry, high compley of allegory, Neoplantonic ideas in that Venus was thought to rule over earthly, human love and over universal, divine love and classical source that Venus is a classical equivalent to Mary, painted at the time of the wedding of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici 1482, suggests love and fertility in marriage. Symbols: Mercury with staff wound with serpants is a sign of the medical profession and medici means doctor, Venus wearing a wedding wreath, setting in a grove of oranges hints towards Venus's garden of Hesperides and Medici's golden orbs in their coat of arms, Zephyrus is getting Chloris who then turns into Flora who is holding flowers to her womb as a symbol of female productivity, three graces are symbols of chasity, beauty, and love, flowers littered on the groun all symbol love and marriage
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    • Gentile Bellini, Procession of the Relic of the True Cross before the Church of St. Mark, 1496
    • celbrated daily life, captured feast of St Mark in 1444 when a sick chil was cured by the relic, in front of the Byzantine Cathedral of St Mark,
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    • Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503-1505, oil on canvas
    • Kept it with him for the rest of his life, no jewlery, pyramidal form, enigmatic smile, looking at the viewer with a sideways glance, sfumato (smoky haze), chiaroscuro, disegno
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    • Michelangelo, David, marble. 1501-4, Florence
    • antique ideal of athletic male nude, emotional expression, concentrated gaze, not a triumphant hero, made to be on a roof line, large hands and head are the focus, pre-battle expression of tension, more fully developed body of a man rather than a adolscent, symbol of Florence
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    • Michelangelo, ceiling fresco, 1508-12, Sistine Chapel, The Vatican, Rome
    • built by Sixtus IV, commissioned by Juslius II, Mich painted mostly by himself, trompe l'oeil illusion of 3d, propherts and siblys surround the 9 center panels of creation through noah, corner spandrels prefigure Jesus, pendentives and lunettes are the ancestors and family of jesus, Mich did the creation scenes last, biblical figures seperated by nude classical figure (ignudi) and putti, charb angels babies
    • Creation of Adam: with eve in the wings, focused throguh postive and negative space, bright colors, complementary colors used for modeling, Mich had very masculine figures even the females,
    • Libyan Sibyl and Prophet Jeremiah
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    • Raphael, The Small Cowper Madonna, oil on wood panel, c 1505
    • delicate tilt of the head, tonalities, pyramidal from the spiral movement of the child and the draperies cling to the form, disegno but with more color, 3/4 profile, linear and atmospheric, fleshing out figures
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    • Leonardo, The Last Supper, tempera and oil on plaster, Milan, 1495-1498
    • space recedes from the table to three windows, the vanishing point is behind christ's head, one point perspective, emotional. Geometry, convergence of perspective lines, pyramisal forms, Jesus' clam demeanor at the center reinforces the sense of gravity, blance and order. Clarity and stability of the High Ren., oil and temerpa very unstable and it started degenerating a year after it was completed
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    • Bramante, Tempietto
    • Little Temple, combined principles of Vitruvius and Alberti from the stepped base, to the Doric columns and frieze to the balmstrode, centrailzed plan and the tall drum (circular wall) supporting a hemispheric dome
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    • Michelangelo, Pieta
    • Virgin supports and mourns the dead Jesus in her lap, she is of heroic stature while Jesus is unnaturally smaller, expressions, went back to sign it, orderly blanced pyrmamid, not realisticly proportioned, more important was the way we precived the piece, believed the form was inside the marble
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    • Raphael, School of Athens
    • Plato and Aristotle are the focus being to the left and right of the vanishing point, silhouetted against the sky and framed under three barrel vaults. Archetecture may have been inspired by the new St. Peter, dynamic unity of the High Ren, in the niches are Apollo and Minerva, Plato points to the realm of ideas and Aristotle gestures towards the basis od understanding, Euclid the father of geometry has the likeness of Bramante who redesigned St Peter, Raphael included himself with geographer Ptolence and astronomor Zoroaster, Heraclitus is a protrait of Michelangelo his shoes show that he is a sculptor, Diogenes the Cynic or Socrates, group around Euclid represents teh stages of understanding preserved though the pose and expression
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Early Italian Ren to High Ren
Part 2 for Exam 1