Blood Morphology

  1. 3 Regions of a Blood Smear?
    Feathered Edge, Counting Area, Thick Area
  2. What angle should you hold the slide for a blood smear?
  3. What is counted in a blood smear differential?
    Segmented Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils, and sometimes bands
  4. What should be noted about the RBC’s?
    Cell size, hemoglobin content, morphology, and distribution
  5. What should be noted about platelets?
    Morphology and estimate number
  6. In how many field should you look at RBC’s and Platelets?
  7. Canine Erythrocyte Characteristics-

    • Generally largest RBC’s

    • Very uniformed RBC’s
    • More Central pallor in RBC’s
    • Variation in platelet size
    • Rouleaux is unusual
  8. Feline Erythrocyte Characteristics-
    • Smaller RBC than Dog
    • Less Central PallorMore chance for Rouleaux and anisocytosis
  9. Bovine Erythrocyte Characteristics-
    • RBC’s similar to cats in size, uniformity, and pallor
    • Rouleaux is not typical
    • Lymphocytes out number Neutrophils
    • Platelets are smaller and very granular
  10. Equine Erythrocyte Characteristics-
    • RBC’s similar to cats in size and uniformity
    • Platelets have faint color and uniformed size
    • Cool basophils and eosinophils
    • Lots of Rouleaux
  11. Avian Erythrocyte Characteristics-
    • RBC’s similar to cats in size and pallor
    • Oval nucleated RBC’s
    • Rouleaux is not typical
    • Platelets are small and granular
    • Heterophils= Neutrophils
  12. Camelids Erythrocyte Characteristics-
    boring, oval, and uniformed
  13. Poikilocytes-
    Variation in SHAPE to RBC’s
  14. Poikilocytes is a general term for -
    Acanthocytes, Schistocytes, Spherocytes, Target Cells, and others
  15. Leptocytes-
    RBC’s with increased membrane or decreased volume (Target Cells and Folded Cells)
  16. Anisocytosis-
    Variation in SIZE of RBC’s
  17. Microcytosis-
    smaller than normal RBC; may indicate Chronic blood loss
  18. Macrocytosis-
    Larger than normal RBC; may be young cell, may indicate response to certain anemias
  19. As cells mature, what happens to the size of them?
    They get smaller
  20. Polychromatophils-
    AKA= Reticulocytes=immature RBC’s, larger than mature RBC’s, blue staining granular material (RNA) in cytoplasm, Response to regenerative anemia
  21. Polychromatophils/ Immature RBC’s main to response to what?
    Regenerative Anemia
  22. Echinocytes-
    AKA= Burr Cells, Response to renal failure, snake bits, lymphosarcoma, heavy activity in equine. Called crenation if artifact
  23. What is an echinocyte called if it is an artifact?
  24. Acanthrocytes-
    AKA= Spur Cells, altered lipid metabolism, liver disease(ex. Hepatic lipidosis in cats), most commonly seen in Hemangiosarcoma
  25. Sperocytes-
    lack of Central Pallor, smaller than normal, reduced membrane, macrophage destruction, more likely seen in dogs, Immune mediated disease, hemolytic anemia, transfution w/ rejection
  26. Target Cells-
    AKA= Codocytes, specific Leptocytes, May also indicate liver disease, chronic anemia, non-regenerative anemia…
  27. Heinz Bodies-
    normal up to 5% in cats, hyperthyroidism, Lymphosarcoma, stains blue w/ new methylene staining, Excess #’s due to toxicity like Tylenol, garlic, or onion
  28. Howell Jolly Bodies-
    nuclear remnant in RBC, normally cleared by spleen, splenectomized patients show increase, anemia
  29. Ghost Cells-
    dead cell which outline remains visible but nucleus and cytoplasmic structure are not stainable
  30. Schistocytes-
    irregular shape appears as a helmet, indicative of a microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) or other causes of hemolysis, Disseminated intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC)
  31. Rouleaux-
    organized stacking or chains of RBC’s, normal in equine, suggests inflammatory disease in other species
  32. Agglutination-
    irregular/ misshapen clumps of RBC’s, indicative of mismatched transfusion or autoimmune
  33. Hyper-Segmented Neutrophils-
    Normal is 2-4 segs, aged neutrophils, often seen in Chronic infections or anemia
  34. Bands-
    Immature neutrophils, response to inflammation, ‘Left shift’
  35. What is a ‘Left Shift’?
    Increase in Bands
  36. Dohle Bodies-
    collection of rough endoplasmic reticulum, more prevalent in cats and horses from simple inflammation, indicates burns, bad infections, and chemotherapy/ often presents with basophilia, Left Shift, foaminess of cytoplasm
Card Set
Blood Morphology
morphology of Blood Cells