bio chap 9

  1. calorie
    amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree celcius
  2. Calorie
    kilocalore (1000)
  3. carbohydrates and proteins
    4 calories
  4. fats
  5. cellular respiration
    needs O2, releases energy from food
  6. location of glycolysis
  7. location of Krebs cycle and ETC
  8. after glycolysis what % of cheical energy is unused?
  9. ETC requires?
    previous reactants
  10. aerobic
    requires O2, krebs and ETC
  11. anerobic
    doesnt require O2 (glycolysis)
  12. photosynthesis
    opposite of cellular respiration
  13. glycolysis
    1 molecule of glucose turns into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
  14. in G .. __ atp is used to start and ___ is produced
    2 , 4
  15. in G.. NAD+
    accepts a pair of high EE and turns to NADH
  16. in G.. NADH
    holds electrons until they are transferred
  17. advantages of glycolysis
    speed & doesnt require O2
  18. Krebs Cycle
    pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2
  19. in K.. the pyruvic acid
    enters the matrix
  20. citric acid
    produced by acetl Co-A adding 2 acetyl groups to a 4 carbon molecule
  21. in K,, the citric acid
    is broken down, CO2 is released, and electrons are transferred into electron carriers
  22. when electron carriers accept a pair of high energy electrons ..
    NAD+ --> NADH & FAD --> FADH2
  23. at the end of the krebs cycle , CO2, ATP, and NADH..
    • CO2-exhaled
    • ATP-powers cellular activities
    • NADH-produces AtP
  24. electron transport chain
    converts adp -->atp
  25. ETC in euk
    inner membrane
  26. ETC in prok
    in cell membrane
  27. final acceptor for ETC
    oxygen (rids of wastes)
  28. when 2 HEE pass the ETC
    their energy causes H+ ions to cross tthe membrane
  29. chemiosmosis
    produces ATP
  30. ATP synthase
    enzymes in the nner mitochondria
  31. the ___ forces H+ ions through the channels causing ATP synthase to spin
    charge difference
  32. when the ATP synthase spins
    the enzyme grabs an ADP and attaches a phosphate group, creating ATP
  33. the total molecules in cellular respiration
    36 ATP/pr glucose
  34. the remaining 64% of energy is..
    released as heat
  35. Fermentation
    without oxygen, releases energy by producing ATP
  36. in F.. cells convert
    NADH --> NAD +
  37. Fermentation takes place in
    the cytoplasm
  38. alcoholic fermentation
    • yeast, alcohol, bread,
    • produces ehtyl alcohol and CO2
  39. lactic fermentation
    doesnt give of CO2
Card Set
bio chap 9