The Middle East and North Africa.txt

  1. Hafiz
    One of Iran's most famous poets
  2. Qur'an
    Holy book of Islam
  3. Melisma
    Sung melodies with many notes to a syllable
  4. Quarter-tone
    Tones that lie in between notes on a Western piano
  5. Jewish diaspora
    The scattering of Jews from their ancestral homeland in Palestine to many areas throughout the world
  6. Islam
    • Religion founded by the prophet Muhammad.
    • Includes Five Pillars:
    • Confession of faith
    • Prayer five times daily
    • Almsgiving
    • Fasting during Ramadan
    • Making a pilgrimage to Mecca
  7. Ghawazi
    Egyptian women who dance only for entertainment
  8. Qira'ah/'tilawah
    Chanting of Qur'an verses
  9. Adhan
    Call to prayer
  10. Mu'adhdhin
    The singers of the Adhan (call to prayer)
  11. Sufism
    Mystical form of Islam more accepting of music in religious context
  12. Dhikr
    • "Remembrance" ceremony in Sufi religion.
    • Cyclic rhythmic figures accompany a repetitive chanting of scripture
  13. Dervishes
    Dancers who whirl around to achieve spiritual union in the Sufi tradition
  14. 'ud
    • Plucked chorophone with pear shaped resonator
    • no frets
    • 5-6 courses
  15. Tanbur
    • Long-necked plucked chorophone
    • 3-4 courses
    • drone strings
    • teardrop resonator
  16. Kaman
    Name for the European violin
  17. Tar
    Classical plucked lute of Iran with hourglass resonator
  18. Rabab
    Bowed spike lute with hemispherical resonator
  19. Kamanche
    Snort-necked fiddle with a fingerboard and pear-shaped body
  20. Santur
    Trapezoidal hammered zither played with wooden mallets
  21. Qanun
    Plucked zither
  22. Nay
    • End blown notch flute
    • played from the side of the mouth
    • found in classical ensembles
  23. Zurna
    Double-reed aerophone with a bell flare
  24. Arghul
    • Single reed aerophone
    • two cylindrical pipes tied together and played at the same time.
    • One pipe is the melody and the other is a drone
  25. Daff
    • Shallow frame drum played with hands and fingers
    • associated with religious contexts
  26. Riqq
    A daff with cymbals
  27. Darabukkah
    Goblet shaped drum played with the fingers
  28. Zagharit
    High cry rapidly trilled with the tongue
  29. Circular breathing
    Achieving uninterrupted air stream by simultaneously playing and breathing in through the nose
  30. Tarab
    The transcendent emotional experience that comes from the combination of highly expressive music and poetry
  31. Responsorial
    Alternating leader/group singing
  32. Antiphonal
    Two alternating groups singing
  33. Maqam
    Modal construct in Arabic music
  34. Tetrachords
    Segments of four chords related by the mathematics of vibrating string ratios
  35. Quarter-tones
    Intervals that are half the size of the smallest European interval
  36. Jins
    • Smaller segments that form scales
    • usually from trichords, tetrachords, and pentachords
  37. Taqsim
    Nonpulsatile improvisations that represent the maqam
  38. Layali
    • Nonpulsatile vocal improvisations
    • use melismas on the syllables "ya layl, ya 'ayn"
    • instrumentalists follow the singer's improvisations
  39. Sayr
    The "path" of the maqam that is a sequence of emphasized pitches in taqsim
  40. Modulation
    • Temporary shifts to a related maqam
    • use a common tetrachord to smooth the transition
  41. Iqa'
    A characteristic rhythmic pattern
  42. Suite
    A series of songs and instrumental pieces unified by their reference to a single maqam
  43. Waslah
    Egyptian name for a suite
  44. Takht
    • An ensemble for playing a suite that has around five musicians that play in heterophonic texture
    • Qanun (zither)
    • 'ud (lute)
    • Nay (flute)
    • Riqq (tambourine)
    • Violin
    • Singer and chorus
  45. Bashraf
    An instrumental genre adapted from Turkish Sufi music
  46. Dulab
    Metered instrumental form - brief heterophonic introduction to the next song
  47. Muwashshah
    • "you, with the slender waist" - strophic form
    • developed in the courts of Muslim Spain
    • concerns the ideal of a woman's beauty and love
  48. Waslah in Maqam Huzam
    Classical suite of songs played by a takht in Egypt in the maqam of Huzam
  49. Firqa
    • A large ensemble of twenty or more musicians in Egypt
    • combined Arabic and European instruments
  50. Umm Kulthum
    • Egyptian singer that sang in firqa and was popular.
    • Adapted the qasida form for performances.
  51. Sha'bi
    • Music associated with underclass youth
    • Had rhythmic patterns of folk dances
    • Monophonic and heterophonic melodies
    • Nonpulsatile vocal improvisations
    • Adopted short phrases, clear refrains, and syllabic text-setting of popular music elsewhere
  52. Rai
    • Algerian style similar to Egyptian Sha'bi
    • Began with female singers singing on controversial subjects
    • Overtaken by European instruments and male singers
  53. Al-jil
    • Mainstream pop music that smoothes out the rough edges of other genres
    • Features synthesizers and other European and Indian influence
  54. Nashid
    Popular music genre that has explicitly Islamic lyrics
  55. Rumi
    • Iranian poet
    • "and the music within us is from thee"
  56. Dastgah
    • Scale that classical improvisation in Iran is based on
    • Has a heptatonic scale called Maye that includes quarter tones
  57. Maye
    Heptatonic scale of dastgah that includes 3/4 and 1 1/4 tones
  58. Gusheh
    Short, related melodies that define a dastgah
  59. Radif
    The entire body of gusheh that describe each dastgah
  60. Chahar mezrab
    • A quasi-pulsatile gusheh
    • strongly rhythmic
    • featured in a dastgah performance
  61. Motreb
    Musicians that perform light classical, dance, and traditional entertainmusic in Iran
  62. Dastgah Mahur
    A popular dastgah that is marked by a characteristic optimistic mood
  63. Ist
    The final note, or tonic, of the mahur dastgah
  64. Levites
    A hereditary caste of professional musicians in early Jewish history
  65. Shofar
    A ram's horn trumpet used in Jewish ceremonies
  66. Cantillation
    A standard method of chanting Biblical texts
  67. Ta'amim
    Signs that indicate the melodic formulas for cantillation
  68. Cantor
    A single singer that performs cantillation in public services
  69. Sephardic
    Jews that settled in Spain and Portugal and were dispersed throughout the Mediterranean
  70. Ashkenazi
    Jews that settled in central and eastern Europe
  71. Hazzanut
    Nonpulsatile songs based on scales and collections of melodic motives
  72. Shteygers
    • Modes of the Ashkenazi cantoral traditions
    • Include characteristic motives and tonal relationships
  73. Nigun
    The songs of the Hasidic Jewish movement that have abstract syllables
  74. Klezmer, klezmorim
    • Jewish folk musicians that play dance music for weddings and other events in Jewish communities
    • Features syncopation and nondiatonic scales
    • A pair of violins, a bass, a dulcimer (cimbalom) and clarinet
  75. Romance/romancero
    • Popular genre of the Sephardic Jews that originated in Renaissance Spain
    • Sunk in Sephardic language (ladino)
    • Ballad-type folk songs
    • Originally sunk by women without accompaniment
    • Now sung with guitar accompaniment
  76. Ladino
    Sephardic language used in romancero music
  77. A Rumenisher Doyne
    A nonpulsatile Klezmer song featuring a solo clarinet player that improvises
Card Set
The Middle East and North Africa.txt
The Middle East and North Africa