1. the process of deciding the best way to use an organization's resources to produce goods or provide services - resources include its employees, equipment, and money
  2. establishes the goals, or objectives of the organization, it decides which actions are necessary to meet those goals, decides how to use the organization's resources - shairperson of the board, CEO, COO, Senior VP
    senior management
  3. responsible for meeting the goals that senior management sets- sets goals for specific areas of the organization and decides what the employees in each area must do to meet those goals - department head - sales manager
    Middle Management
  4. make sure that the day to day operations of the organization run smoothly - front line level - foreman- crew leader - store manager
    supervisory management
  5. Management Tasks(5)
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Staffing
    • Leading
    • Controlling
  6. a manager decides on goals and the actions the organization must take to meet them (management task)
  7. a manager groups related activities together and assigns employees to perform them (management task)
  8. A manager decides how many and what kinds of people an organization needs to meet its goals (management task)
  9. A manager provides the guidance employees need to perform their tasks (management task)
  10. A manager measures how the organization performs to ensure that financial goals are being met - requires a manager to analyze accouting records and to make changes if financial standards are not being met (management task)
  11. Relative amount of emphasis Placed on Each Function of Management
    Senior Management -
    Middle Management -
    Supervisory Management -
    • Senior - equally among five tasks
    • Middle - spend most of their time leading and controlling
    • Supervisory - little time planning and a lot of time controlling
  12. Management Roles (3)
    • Interpersonal
    • Informational
    • Decisional
  13. Management Roles
    1.Interpersonal -
    2.Informational -
    3.Decisional -
    • 1. Figurehead - symbolic duties
    • Leader - establishes atmosphere and motivates
    • Liason - develops and maintains networks outside org
    • 2. Monitor - collects info relevant to the org
    • Disseminator - gives people info they need to make decisions
    • spokesperson - transmits info to outside
    • 3. entreprenuer - initiates controlled change
    • disturbance handeler - deals with unexpected changes
    • resource allocator - makes decisions on use of resources
    • negotiator - deals with other individuals and orgs
  14. Management Skills (3)
    Conceptual, Human Relations, Technical
  15. Which level of management uses which skills the most?
    • Conceptual - Senior Management
    • HR - All Levels
    • Technical - Supervisory
  16. a management skill - help managers understand how different parts of a company relate to one another and to the company as a whole
  17. a management skill - those that managers need to understand and work well with people
    human relations
  18. management skill - the specific abilities that people use to perform their jobs
  19. managers are expected to set the standard for their department and to model behavior they expect from subordinates - cannot play favorites, put self before employees, lose temper
    Management Agreement
  20. including people of different genders, races, religions, nationalities, ethnic groups, age groups, and physical abilities - represents major social change
  21. invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in ther organizational hierarchy - usually due to life circumstances
    glass ceiling
  22. the application of standards of moral behavior to business situations - SOX - worthless if not enforced
    Business ethics
  23. Many of today's managerial problems began?
    During the early manaement movement
  24. T/F Some forms of management have existed since the beginning of time
  25. Government Regulation for buisiness - prevented monopolies - no restriction on competition (not natural monopolies)
    Sherman Antitrust Act
  26. Philosophy of Frederick W Taylor that sought to increase productivity and make the work easier by scientifically studying work methods and establishing standards
    1. time and motion studies
    2. not everyone is right for certain jobs and training
    3. explain to workers why things are done
    4. workers focus on one aspect of a complete job
    Scientific Management
  27. the actions of employees who intentionally restrict output
  28. Henry Gantt
    production control - Gantt Chart
  29. Frank Gilbreth
    Study of motion with with Frederick Taylor
  30. Lillian Gilbreth
    Psychology - the first lady of management
  31. Henri Fayol
    first to outline the functions of management - 14 principles - acknowledged equity
  32. production increase with no obcious relationship to environment - employees racted to condititions of attention
    Hawthorn Studies
  33. gave railway workers the right to form unions and engage in collective bargaining, established a corresponding obligation for employers to recognize and collectively bargain with the union
    railway labor act
  34. severely restricted the use of injunctions to limit union activity
    norris -La Guardia Act of 1932
  35. Resulted in full, enforceable rights of employees to join unions and to engage in collective bargaining with their employer who ws legally obligated to do so
    National Labor Relations Act of 1935
  36. Established minimum wages and required that time and a half be paid for hours worked over 40 in one week
    Fair Labor Standards Act
  37. a organization can be viewed as one of the following systems - open or closed - a set of connected elements that function as a whole
    Systems approach
  38. organization interacts with its external environment - part of systems approach
    open system
  39. organization has no interaction with its external environment - part of systems apprach
    close system
  40. The controlling/authorative manager believes that most employees don't like to work and will only work at the required level of productivity if they are forced to do so under the threat of punishment - people are lazy and uncreative
    Theory X
  41. The democratic/participative manager believes that employees can be trusted to meet production targets without being threatened and that they will often seek additional responsibilities because they enjoy the satiffaction of being creative and increasing their own skills - workers want to be creative
    Theory Y
  42. different conditions require different management approaches - no one best way to manage; the best way depends on the specific circumstances
    contingency approach to management
  43. attempts to integrate American and Japanese management practices - encouraged more participation - deeper concern for employee's well being - emphasis on quality - management facilitator
    Theory Z
  44. increased attention to quality - shift from finding and correcting mistakes or rejects to preventing them - managing the entire organization so that it excels in all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer
    Total Quality Management (TQM)
  45. Series of book focusing on top companies of the time- problem was they weren't top in future years - Built to Last - In Search for Excellence
    Moving from Good to Great
  46. managers focus on simple basic principles that allow the company to focus on performance rather than pursuing several strategic projects at the same time
    hedgehog concept
  47. the act of exchanging information - can be used to inform, command, instruct, assess, influence, and persuade other people
  48. managers spend three quarters of their time communicating (listening 55%) - important because managers must give directions, motivate, convince, absorb ideas, persuade
    communication as a mangement skill
  49. how well someone can reproduce what you said effictive ness of mediums of communications (greatest to least )
    Face to Face->Video Conferencing->Telephone->2 Way Radio->Written Addressed Documents->Unadressed documents
    Media Richness
  50. interactice process, transmit information, sender communicates verbally and nonverbally, factors can interfere and cause process to fail -
    Interpersonal Communication
  51. Assuming a receiver understands can create a misunderstanding - always seek verbal or nonverbal feedback - interpretation can be a problem - ensure sender and receiver see and understand in the same way
    Interpersonal Communication Failure - conflicting or inappropriate assumptions
  52. study of the meanings of words or symbols(only meaning in people's reactions
  53. Two problems with semantics
    • 1.Multiple Interpretations
    • 2.Group Technical Language
  54. deals with the mental and sensory processes an individual uses in interpreting information she or he receives -different people do this differently with the same information- listen to only part of the message
  55. affect the communication process- setting is important - good communication is both this and physical - affect our disposition to send and receive communication
  56. developing good listening skills (4 parts)
    • Identify purpose
    • Identify main ideas
    • Note speakers tone and body language
    • Respond to the Speaker
  57. includes pitch, tempo, loudness, and hesitations in verbal communication(paralanguage)- can change the meaning of verbal communication - gestures - body posture and eye contact
    importance of nonverbal communication
  58. kinds of non verbal communication
    • paralanguage
    • gestures
    • body posture
    • eye contact
  59. principles of good writing
    • write as simply and clearly as possible
    • content and tone are appropriate for the audiance
    • proofread the documents
  60. developing oral communication skills
    • address by name
    • avoid monotone
    • avoid interupting
    • be courteous
    • avoid filler words
    • be enthusiastic
  61. most appropriate for sensitive communications (reprimanding or dismissing an employee)
    Situation where verbal communication is best
  62. most appropriate for communicating routine information, such as changes in company policies or staff
    Situation where written communication is best
  63. informal channels of communication within an organization - often accurate - will always exist
  64. intelligence, design, and choice
    decision process
  65. the process of choosing from among various alternatives
    decision making
  66. the process of determining the appropriate responses or actions necessary to alleviate a problem
    problem solving
  67. approach used when managers make decisions based largely on hunches and intuition - problems occur when managers ignore available facts and rely only on feelings
    suggestions : 1. become aware of biases and allow for them 2. seek independent opinions
    intuitive approach
  68. a rational approach to decision making -
    1. recognize need for decision
    2. establish weight and rank criteria
    3. gather available info and data
    4. identify possible alternatives
    5. evaluate each alternative
    6. select the best alternative
    optimizing approach
  69. assumes the economic person - 4 assumptions
    1. clearly define criteria
    2. people have knowledge
    3. have the ability
    4. have self discipline
    most decision still involve some judgement
    limitations of the optimizing approach
  70. selecting the first alternative that meets the decision maker's minimum standard of satisfaction-human rationality has definite limits - bounded rationality
    1. Knowledge of criteria is limited
    2. acto on simplified concept of real world
    3. take first alternative
    4. level of aspiration fluctuates depending on value of recent alternatives
  71. the level of performance a person expects to attain -impacted by the person's prior successes and failures
    level of aspirations
  72. knowing exactly what will happen - condition for decision making
  73. certain reliable but incomplete information is available - precise probablities usually not know- can use expected calue analysis - desirability of getting the information is figured by weighing the costs of obtaining the inormaiton against the information's value
    situation of risk
  74. decision maker has no knowledge concerning the probabilities associated with different possible outcomes
    situation of uncertainty
  75. optimistic or gambling approach
  76. pessimistic approach
  77. choosing the alternative with the least variation among its possible outcomes
    risk averting approach
  78. better than single person
    takes longer
    less responsible
    more polar
    group decision making
  79. barriers to effective decision making(3)
    • 1. Complacency
    • 2. Defensive Avoidance
    • 3. Panic
  80. Five Step Process
    1. Preparation
    2. Concentration
    3. Incubation
    4. Illumination
    5. Verification
    The Creative Process
  81. 1. Instill Trust
    2. Develop communication
    3. Seek Talent
    4. Reward
    5. Allow Flexibility
    Tools to foster creativity
  82. Rules to Brainstorming
    • 1. no criticism
    • 2. no praise allowed
    • 3. no questions or discussion
    • 4. combine ideas together
  83. Using a key word to brainstorm an idea
    Gordon Technique
Card Set
LEH - Management