1. Asepsis
    Absence of germs
  2. Antiseptic
    Tending to ihibit the growth and reproduction of microorganism
  3. Acquired immunity
    Formation of antibodies in the infected host which protects against future invasion of the same organism
  4. Host
    An animal or plant that harbors and provides fir the need of another organism
  5. Infection
    Invasion of yhe body by pathogenic microorganism that caused disease
  6. Microorganism
    Is a living entity microscopic. (too small to be seen by naked eye)
  7. Inflammation
    The protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury
  8. Infection control
    Means to institue and practice measures to curtail the spread of infectious disease
  9. Microbiology
    The study of organism that only be seen through a microscope
  10. Nosocomial infection
    Refers to infections acquired in the hospital
  11. Pathogen
    Organisms that produce disease
  12. Reservoir
    Ad a means of sustaining an infectious organism as otential source of infection
  13. Sterilization
    Refers to the process that effectivelu kills or eliminates transmissible agents
  14. Standard precaution
    Used when caring patient regardless of diagnosis or infection
  15. Spore
    Specialized structure form by bacteria which is resistant to heat and drying
  16. Toxin
    Poisonous waste produced by some bacyeria
  17. Virus
    Smalleat microorg. Tgat cause infection only seen with electron microscope
  18. Virology
    Study of viruses
  19. Microbiology
    Study of microorg. , microbes, germs, and their activities. Only be seen through microscope
  20. Who laid the foundation of microbiology from 1865-1882?
    • Louise Pasture
    • Robert koch
    • Joseph Lister
  21. Bacteriology
    Study of bacteria
  22. Virology
    Study of virus
  23. Mycology
    Study of fungia
  24. Rickettseaology
    Study of rickettsea
  25. Immunology
    Study of immunity, resistance to diseaae
  26. Protozoology
    Study of protozoa
  27. What are the microscopes discovered?
    Light microscope and electron microscope
  28. Microbiology
    Study of microorganism, microbes, germs, and their activities. Can only be seen through microscope
  29. Gerolamo Fracostorious
    1484-1553 wrote three books on the tranfer of infections from person to person
  30. Who wrote about the transfer of infections from person to person?
    Gerolamo Fracostorious 1484-1553
  31. Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek
    1632-1723 from Holland. First petson yo obsetve and deacribe microorganisms he called "animalcules" throufh the mucriscope
  32. Who was the first person to look through a microscope and describe what they saw?
    Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek from Holland
  33. Lazarro Spallanzani
    From Italy. Proposed and proved tgat heat and air excluded from tube containing animalcules and heated will kill them
  34. Edward Jenner
    English physician who developed a vaccine against small pox
  35. Who developed a vaccine against small pox?
    Edward Jenner an english physician
  36. Who laid the foundation of microbiology as a new separate science?
    Louis pasteur, Robert Koch, and Joseph Lister
  37. Oliver Wendell Holmes
    1843 physician poet published an article on contagiousness of puerperal sepsis, stated disease coyld be spread by hands of doctors and nurses
  38. Who wrote an article on contagiousness of puerperal sepsis?
    Oliver wendell holmes
  39. Puerperal sepsis
    a serious form of septicaemiacontracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion. If untreated, it is life-threatening.
  40. Robert Koch
    1843-1910 german physician. He developed Kochs postulates
  41. Ignaz Semmelweis
    • 1847 advisrd handwashing with a chlirinated lime solution
    • 1861 published his view on the cause of puerperal fever
  42. Who advised handwashing with a chlorinated lime solution?
    Ignaz Semmelweis
  43. Who published their views on the cause of puerperal fever?
    Ignaz Semmelweis
  44. Louis Pasteur
    • 1822-1895 father of modern microbio and bacteriology
    • Developed theory of fermentation
    • Conclude decomp caused by growth of microorganisms
  45. Who is the father of modern microbiology and bacteriology?
    Louis Pastuer
  46. Who developed the theory of fermentation
    Louis Pastuer
  47. Who concluded that decomp. occurs by growth of microorg. ?
    Louis Pastuer thr father of modern microbio anf bacteriology
  48. When is the golden age of bacteria?
    1880-1890 when many bacteria were discovered
  49. Dr. Ricketts
    1909- first observed rickettsea bodies
  50. Who first observed rickettsea?
    Dr. Ricketts 1909
  51. How is rocky Mt. Spotted fever transmitted?
    Wood ticks
  52. Wood ticks transmit what?
    Rocky Mt. Spotted
  53. Joseph Lister
    1912- applied emerging knowledge about the relationship btween disease and infection using asepsis in surgery
  54. Why practice Asepsis in surgery?
    Reduce infections caused by surgery
  55. Sir Alexander Fleming
    1928- Discovered penicillin by accident which saved his life since he had pneumonia
  56. Who and when discovered penicillin by accident?
    Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928
  57. What are microorganisms?
    • Living entities
    • Only visible through microscope
    • Exist in air, water, soil and lon everything and everyone
  58. Bacteriology
    Study of bacteria
  59. Virology
    Study of virus
  60. Mycology
    Study of fungi
  61. Rickettseaology
    Study if rickettsea
  62. Immunology
    Study of immunity, resistance to disease
  63. Protozoology
    Study of protozoa
  64. Invasion of microorganisms in the body results in?
    • 1 cause an infection
    • 2 not cause an infection (normal flora)
  65. Normal flora
    Microorganism resides in the body without causing disease
  66. List different types of organisms.
    • 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Rickettsiae
    • 3. Chlamydia
    • 4. Virus
    • 5. Fungi
    • 6. Protozoans
    • 7. Helminths
  67. baceria
    • single celled
    • appear in three basic shapes: round (coccus), rod shape (bacillus) and curved rod
  68. what are the differnt shapes that bacteria come in?
    round (coccus), rod shaped (bacillus), and curved rod
  69. coccus
    round shape for bacteria
  70. bacillus
    rod shaped bacteria
  71. curved rod
    curved rod shape of bacteria
  72. which is the largest group of microorganisms that can produce toins and cause disease?
  73. aerobic bacteria
    they only gow in the presence of oxygen
  74. anaerobic bacteria
    it only gorw in the ABSENCE of O2
  75. spore
    specialized structure formed by bacteria, remains dormant and germinates under favorable conditions. resistant to heat and disinfectants
  76. capsules
    bacteria can form them. - thick, slimy substances that envelopes cells when conditions are unfavorable
  77. flagella
    hair-like structures that enable the bacteria to move
  78. toxin
    poisonous waste produced by bacteria
  79. rickettsiae
    microorganism that resembe bacteria but act more like viruses. smaller than bacteria, reproduce within the living cells of the host; transmitted to humans by intermeiate life forms such as fleas. which are referred to as parasites and can be treated with antibiotics
  80. what microorganism resembles bacteria but act more like virus?
  81. parasites
    lives in a host
  82. chlamydia
    classified as bacteria - smaller than ricketssiae
  83. what does chlamydia cause?
    • 1. clamydia trachomatis, one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the US
    • 2. Trachomana a leading cause of blindness
  84. what is one of hte most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the US and what causes it?
    chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia (classified as a bacteria) causes it
  85. Viruses
    • smalled microorganism known to cause infectious diseases, can only be seen with an electron microscope.
    • they are filterable. need another organism to reporduce
    • cause diseases such as common cold, fever, blister, chickn pox, shingles, aids, hep.
  86. what is the smallest microorganism know to cause infectious disease?
  87. what do viruses cause?
    it causes fever, common cold, blister, chicken pox, aids, hepiatitis
  88. fungi
    • plant like organisms, only a few cause infectious diseases in humans
    • 3 types of infections: superficial, intermediate, systemic
  89. what are examples of fungi?
    yeasts and molds
  90. mycotic infections
    fungal infections
  91. superficial mycotic infection
    fungal infection on the skin
  92. intermediate mycotic infection
    fungal infection beneath the skin
  93. systemic mycotic infection
    fungal infections that occur to organs
  94. protozoans
    single-celled animals;classified according to their ability to move; use of flagella, and sporozoa
  95. where are protozoans found?
    found in soil and most bodies of rain
  96. what do protozoans cause?
    cause amoebic dysentery and malaria
  97. opportunistic infections
    occur to patients that are immune compromised
  98. helminths
    infectious worms, not microscopic
  99. what are examples of helminths?
    roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes
  100. arthropods
    animals with jointed legs including insects and ticks, mosquitoes can carry pathogens
  101. what do microorganims need to thrive?
    favorable enviornment; warmth, darkness, oxygen, water and nourishment
  102. culture
    a special medium to promote growth of the organism
  103. sensitivity
    to determine which antibiotics will inhibit bacteria
  104. gram stain
    uses a dye, a crytal violet/ blue violet use
  105. gram postive
    retain the color of the crystal violet
  106. gram negatve
    lost the crystal violet take the color of the red counterstain
  107. what microorganism is seen in gram positive?
  108. what microorganism is seen in gram negative?
  109. non pathogens
    do not cause disease (harmless)
  110. pathogens
    cause diseases
  111. residents
    generally non pathogens that are constantly present on the skin
  112. transient
    pathogens picket up during brief contact with contaminated reservoirs
  113. carriers
    person that has the organism but NOT the disease
  114. what is the chain of infection
    1. infectious agent (found everywhere) 2. reservoir 3. exit route from the reservir 4. mode of transmission 5. port of entry 6. susceptible host
  115. what is 'mode of transmission' in the chain of infection?
    how the microorganims that cause infections leave its reservoir (someone or some place) and land on its new prey
  116. what are ways that microorganims survive?
    1. form spores- which can resist heat and destructive chemicals that can survive without moisture 2. ability to become ntibiotic resistant
  117. what are the methods of disease transmission?
    1. contact: person to person 2. airborne 3 enviornment to person 4. droplet, vehicle 5. vector - vehicle into the body
  118. infections acquired while in the hospital or other health agency at least 48 hours after admission or within 30 days of discharge is called?
    nosocomial infections
  119. infection
    refers to the condition that result when the microorganism cause injury to the host
  120. colonization
    refers to the presence of microroganisms but the host does not manifest signs or sympotoms of infection
  121. what are the stages of infection?
    1. incubation period 2. prodromal state 3. acute stage 4. convalescent stage 5. resolution
  122. incubation period of infection
    interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptom
  123. prodromal stage of infectin
    interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms (example: body aches but cold not there yet)
  124. acute stage of infection
    interval when atient manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection (ex: full blown flu)
  125. convalescent stage of infection
    interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear
  126. resolution stage of infection
    when infection disappears
  127. infection control
    means to institue and practice measures to curtail the spread of infectious diseases
  128. what are ways to control spread of infectious diseases?
    1. confining pathogens to one area (private room) 2. using personal protective equipment (gloves, gowns, face protection ect) 3. dispose of contaminated linen, equip. and supplies
  129. what are the two major categories established by CDC in 1996?
    1. standard precautions 2. transmission based precautions
  130. CDC
    centers for disease control and prevention
  131. standard precautions
    used when caring for all patients, regardless of diagnosis or infection; a mjor category established by CDC in 1996
  132. transmission based precautions
    a major category established by CDC in 1996; measures used for controling spread of infectious agents from pts known to be or suspected of being infected with highly transmissible or epidermiologically imporan pathogens
  133. what is another name for transmission based precaution?
    isolation precautions
  134. what is te most improtant and basic preventive technique for preventing spread of infection?
    hand washing
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