Chapter 10

  1. Continuity (Continuous development)
    • Development is continuous and gradual
    • ex) Learning to walk
  2. Discontinuity
    • Development occurs in leaps, progressing though distinct changes
    • ex) Puberty
  3. Cephalocaudal trend
    • Development occurs from the "head to tail"
    • Head size of infant is large compared to rest of the bodu
  4. Proximodistal trend
    • Development occurs "near to far" in relation to thje torso
    • Heart and internal organs function well before limbs and fine motor skills
  5. Critical Period
    • An age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally
    • ex) Language
  6. Sensitive Period
    An optimal range for certain experiences that will maximize development
  7. 3 stages of prenatal development
    • 1) germinal stage: first 2 weeks. zygote.
    • 2) embyonic stage: 2 weeks to 2 months. embryo. formation of vital organs
    • 3) fetal stage. 2 months to birth. fetus. bodily growth continues. grows in size
  8. Age of viability
    Age at which, if born, the fetus will survive
  9. Teratogens
    Substances that can cross the placental barrier which have a negative impact on prenatal development
  10. Assimilation
    Absorbing new info into existing cognitive structures
  11. Accomodation
    Modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new info
  12. Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development
    • Sensorimotor: Birth -2 years. Sensory perceptions and motor skills. gradual appearance of symbolic thought
    • mental symbols to represent objects
    • object permanence ( things continue to exist when out of sight)

    • Preoperational: 2 - 7. not good at conservation tasks yet.
    • Centration- focusing on one feature of a problem and neglecting other aspects
    • Irreversibility- cant reverse and action in mind
    • egocentric. animism

    Concrete operational: 7-11. decentration. master reversability.

    • Formal Operational: 11+. abstraction
    • abstract reasoning
  13. Vygotsky's theory
    emphasized the sociocultural influences on cognitive development
Card Set
Chapter 10
Human Development