1. Define Tumor
    a neoplasm and abnormal mass, growth or porliferation that is independent of neighboring tissue
  2. Define Benign
    • Not a recuurent or progressive
    • non-malignat (-oma)
  3. Define Malignant
    • Growing worse: resisting treatment, tending or threatening to produce death
    • -carcinoma or sarcoma
    • spread
  4. Define Metastastis
    Movement of bacteria or body cesll (especially canerous) from one part of the body to another
  5. Define Carcinogenesis
    process by which normal cells are transformed into caner cells
  6. Explain the characteristics of Benign tumors
    • differentiated cells (look like tissue of orgin)
    • Encapsulated and expands DOES NOT SPREAD
    • can damage surrounding structures
  7. Explain the Characteristics of Malignant Tumors
    • Undifferentiated, nonfunctional cells (no not look like tissue of orgin)
    • Irregular size, shape, SPREADS
    • Compresses blood vessels
    • often set up sites of inflammation and infection, inner cells die
    • Tume traps nutrients then normal cells are deprived (later in development)
  8. Grading of Cancer
    • Grading is based on how the cancer cells look
    • Grade 1- looks similar to the cell of orgin (caught early = good prognosis)
    • Grage 4 - undifferentiates cells look very different than the cells of origin - different sizes and shapes (late state = poor prognosis)
  9. Early Warning Signs
    • C - Change in bowl or bladder
    • A - A sore that doesn't heal
    • U - unusual bleeding or discharge
    • T - Thickening or Lump
    • I - Indesestion or difficult swallowing
    • O - Obvious change in wart or mole
    • N - Nagging cough or horseness
  10. Local Effects of Tumors
    • Obstrution of duct, passageway
    • Pain
    • Ulcertion Leads to necrosis
    • Inflammation
  11. Systemic Effects of Tumors
    • Weight loss, cachexia (cancer takes nutrients)
    • Anorexia, Fatigue, Stress, Anemia
    • Increased demands on the rest of the body
    • Systemic infections
    • Parneoplastic syndromees
    • Bleeding (eroded blood Vessels)
  12. Define Carcinogenesis
    • Permanent alteration of DNA.
    • Normal cells transform into abnormal cells that continue to reproduce
    • Initiating
    • Exposure to promoters
    • Continued exposure = Malignant Tumor
  13. List the Risk Factors for Caner
    • Genetic Predisposition
    • Smoking
    • Chemicals used in industry, food, cosmetics, plastic
    • Environmental agents
    • Radiation
    • Advanced age
  14. How is Cancer Diagnosised
    • Through medical exam and history
    • Lab Test: blood, spinal fluid, etc
    • Palpation
    • Endoscopy of hallow organs (proctoscope)
    • X-ray, CT scan, MRI, Ultrasound, PET scan, (looking for changes in tissues and orans
    • Biopsy ( most diagnostic)
  15. Carcinoma vs Sarcoma
    • Carcinoma: epithelial or glandular spread through lymph travel
    • Sarcoma: connective tissue, spread through blood travel
  16. Staging of Cancer
    • T : (tumor size - primary tumor) 0-4
    • N : (lymph noed involved) 0-4
    • M : Metastasis 0-3 number of sites it has moved
  17. Name the three treatment types for cancer
    • Curative
    • Palliative (comfort care)
    • Prophylactic (prevent cancer after tumor has been removed)
  18. Surgery for Cancer
    • Most success with small, localized tumors
    • May not be able to get entire tumor, may need to remove normal tissue and nearby lymph nodes
    • May have significant effect of function
  19. Chemotherapy
    • use of antineoplastic drugs (combination of 2-4 drugs)
    • May induce regression of tumor reduce pain
    • Side Effects on bone marrow, GI, hair and skin
    • Blook count need to be watched closely
    • Pt at increased risk for infection and poor healing abilites.
  20. Radiation
    • Using either external rays, or internal insertion of radioactive matherial aimed to alter DNA of rapily growing cells and estroy them while trying to avoid normal tissue
    • Side effects: bone marrow despression, damage to blood vessels, and skin, weakness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, anemia, fatigue, and possible sterility
  21. Other Treatment options
    • Hormones
    • Biological response modifiers (helps increase immune system)
    • Angiogenesis inhibitor drugs (decreases growth of blood vessles)
    • Analgescis - pain meds
    • Augmented nutrition
  22. Patient Care Issues
    • Pain Control is critical PCA
    • Maintaining fluid and food intake as concer cells compete for nutrition leading to weight loss
    • ADL evaluation
    • engergy conservation and wrok simplifivation
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