A set of cultural practices and works in the arts invented during the formative years of Israeli society
What was its main ideology? How was it achieved? (Hebrewism)
The “New Jew”, a native of the land (a “Sabra”). It was achieved through the revival of the Hebrew language
What was the role of the state in it?
During the first decade, the state with its institutions presented and imposed it
How was it manifested in folk music
In SLI – Songs of the Land of Israel
Compare and contrast “Globalized Israeliness” and Hebrewism
Globalized Israeliness sees Israeliness as an extension of world culture It is a hybrid of Hebrewism and adopted foreign materialsIt is privatized rather than state-supporte
How was “Globalized Israeliness” best represented in music?
In Rock Music
What is the definition of “Mizrahiyut”? What did it demand?
An identity that manifests itself in a set of local practices by the second and third generation of Jews who immigrated to Israel from Muslim countries. It is a hybrid of traditional Jewish culture from Muslim countries, Arab national cultures,Hebrewism, and contemporary global culture. It demanded recognition and legitimacy, and rebelled against the stigma of an “ethnic” group
What are the factors involved in the canonization process of SLI?
Educators The media Communal singing Relation to dance Revival by rock/pop performers Army and state institutions such as the Histadrut Song book
What are the musical characteristics of SLI?
Influence of Russian ballads Accompanying instruments are usually: accordion, piano, or guitar Modal Ornamented
Why are SLI problematic in relation to folk tradition (p. 56)?
The composer is known (hence the term “invented folk song”) Their support comes from the establishment rather than from the people They are notate
Why would SLI be accepted as Folk Music according to the 1955 Sao Pauloconference of the IFMC
Because although most of them were written by individual composers, theyhave been absorbed subsequently into the unwritten living tradition of the countr
What are the three main literary themes of SLI
Describing, cultivating, and defending the lan
How was SLI ussually, performed?
communal singing and singing ensembles
When were SLI broadcasted?
Radio (particularly on Memorial Day for the Fallen Soldiers)Radio and TV specific programs for SL
How were SLI disseminated in print?
Songbooks (by agencies: Jewish National Fund; and The Histadrut
Who recorded SLI?
Known Rock and Pop singers since the 1970s
What are the main three periods to which SLI can be divided, and what characterizes each one of them musically?
a) 1900s-1960s – the “golden age” – this period is subdivided to two:1900s-1920s – songs of the first Aliyot, which included adaptation of Diaspora songs, setting Hebrew texts to Russian melodies, and rarely, the use of Arabictunes.1920s-1960s – was the period when the bulk of the repertory was composed. Those were mostly original songs, and occasionally the translation of Russian songs
b) 1960s-1980s – nostalgia – with the rise of rock, SLI were perceived as “old” repertory, yet, new songs were added.
c) 1980s-present – SLI is an established genre. Pop and rock ballads that comply with the textual and musical requisites become part of it.
What were the main ways in which SLI were distributed?
Sales of cheap prints Teaching new songs in school Communal singing Performances of arrangements for amateur choirs or for semi-professional mixed vocal-instrumental ensembles Records Radio
What were the main three periods of the army ensembles, and what characterizes each one of them musically
1950s – simple productions (French ensembles influence)1960s – transition towards more pop. Rock instruments around 1966/671969 to 1975 – elaborated productions (American influence: Hai
True or False: the army ensembles were very successful in the civilian popmarket
What were the two functions of the army ensembles?
Entertainment for soldiers and ideological function
True or False: there is no connection between the army ensembles repertoire and SLI
What was the effect of the army ensembles on the pop industry?
Many of the graduates of the army ensembles became successful singers who were to dominate the industry for years to come.
Who wrote, composed, and staged the songs for the army ensembles
Hired professionals from the music industr
Approximately how many songs were written for the army ensembles?
How often was a new program created for the army ensembles? What did it include
Every 1-2 years a new program that included skits and songs – for soldiers aswell as general audience
True or False: army ensembles songs were choreographed
What was the conflict the army ensembles were facing? (p. 96)
Outside influences (Latin, Jazz, Rock) were in conflict with the ideology ofHebrewism that saw them as inauthentic
What was problematic in the third period of the army ensembles in terms of style and ideology
Rock, which was equivalent to protest and antiwar attitude, was in conflict with the national ideological role of the army ensembles
What was another growing criticism by army officers on the army ensembles in the 1970s? (p. 109)
The rising costs of the productions which limited the ability to perform for soldiers who were stationed far away
The most prominent army ensemble is...
the Nahal Army Ensemble.
What do the two new recruits in the movie “The Troupe” symbolize accordingto the authors (p. 112)?
Emerging cultural change
How do the two new recruits affect the process of integration in the movie according to the authors (p. 112)?
The veteran members accept the style and conduct introduced by the
What was the Israeli Song Festival modeled after
It was modeled after European popular song contests (the most famous one wasin San Remo, Italy which started in 1951)
What was the Israeli Song Festival a reaction to?
Foreign styles like the Tango, French chansons, and Italian ballads
How did the festival change musically at the beginning of the 1970s
Moved more towards po
How did the festival change with the rise of Rock and the growth of private music industry?
“Call for songs” cancelled – only commissioned songs by IBA participated Famous comedians as anchors was a move towards pure entertainmen
How did the festival change at the beginning of the 1980s?
Was renamed “The pre-Eurovision competition
True or False: Female singers participated in the Hassidic Song Festival
What was the Hassidic Song Festival a reaction to?
It was a reaction by the national religious sector who was looking for its path into mainstream Israeliness
What was the incentive behind the Oriental Song Festival and how was that inconflict with the actual songs that were written?
It was the lack of representation of Mizrahi Jews in the Israeli song festival. The problem was that songs were “watered down” by western harmonization and orchestration, in addition to the fact that most of the composers were Ashkenazi
What were the first rock bands of the 1960s a reaction to?
They rejected the meanings, aesthetics, and contents of the dominantideologically mobilized nationalistic music culture
What was the establishment’s reaction to them
Their were ignored by the media and the record companies
How did Rock artists view SLI (p. 145)? What was Arik Einstein’s contributionto SLI?
Those who graduated from the army ensembles wanted a new form of national music that incorporates Rock.During the 1970s, Arik Einstein recorded three albums of old SLI. He revitalized the songs by using light arrangements, in contrast to the full orchestration or forced folk-like style of earlier recordings, and by removing the pathos and drama from the vocal delivery typical of earlier performers
In 1970, Arik Einstein released the album Shablool together with Shalom Hanoch
What was unique in the vocal delivery of the songs in that album
Guttural enunciation of the lyrics and expressive shouts at the end of phrase
How was the band ‘Kaveret’ formed
The seven members of Kaveret were all graduates of army ensemble
What Bands Influenced Kavaret?
Moby Grape and the Allman Brothers.
What was unique about the instrumentation of the band “Kaveret?
Three electric guitar players who all san
What is “Esta” (p. 154)
An upbeat rhythmic pattern that gives the song a Mediterranean/Balkan/oriental spirit
What was ambivalent about the music of the band Kaveret (p. 152)
Whether it was a rock band or an incarnation of an army ensemble
What is the opinion of composer Eldad Shrim with regard to Kaveret (p. 152)
It was more an army ensemble or a pop band since there was no brutality or anger in their songs. The effect of Rock was secondar
What was the importance of the first and only album of band “Tamuz” (p.157)
It marked the arrival of the producer as an artistic entity and the emergence ofstudio craftsmanship as a major aesthetic component
Name 3 British progressive-rock bands that influenced progressive-rock artists in Israel.
Gentle Giant, King Crimson, Genesis
What are the musical characteristics of progressive-rock?
1. Use of non typical Rock instruments (flute, strings)2. Abrupt changes (mood, tempo, key, etc)
In the late 1970s, there was a wave of what kind of music in Israel?
Musician such as Yoni Rechter, Shlomo Gronich, Matti Caspi, and Shem Tov Levi, created a link between what?