Which action can be performed most accurately using only the human senses?
(D) counting 28 shells from a beach
Using a ruler to measure the length of a stick is an example of
(D) extending the sense of sight by using an instrument
A group of students observed and measure various characteristics of a stream for one day. Which statement about the stream is most likely an inference?
(A) The water level of the stream will rise after the next rainfall.
Which procedure is an example of classifying observed data?
(A) grouping stars by brightness
A student incorrectly measure the volume of a mineral sample as 83 cubic centimeters when the actual volume was 89 centimeters. What was the student's approximate percent error?
As air on the surface of Earth warms, the density of the air
If each side of a cube is 2.2 cm what is the approximate volume of the cube?
(A) 2.20 cm3 (B) 4.84 cm3 (C) 6.60 cm3 (D) 10.65 cm3
(D) 10.65 cm3
(use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
A person incorrectly measures the mass of a rock as 346 grams. The actual mass is 326 grams. What is the person's approximate percent error?
Mineral: A B C D Mass: 50g 60g 55g 40g
Volume: 20mL 15mL 10mL 5mL
Which mineral has the greatest density?
(use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
Water has its greatest density at a temperature of
A sphere has a mass of 0.8 grams and a density of 0.4 g/cm3. What is the volume of this sphere?
(D) 2.0 cm3
Ocean tides are best described as
(A) predictable and cyclic
Which object best represents a true scale model of the shape of the Earth?
(C) a ping-pong ball
An example of noncyclic change is the occurrence of
What is an observation?
using your senses to learn about your environment
If a cube has a volume of 8 cm3, what is the length of any one side?
(C) 2 cm
What is an inference?
drawing a conclusion based on your background knowledge and observations
At which latitude would the Sun be viewed most nearly overhead at noon during the month of June? (A) 231/2oN
(C) 66 1/2oN
The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through
(A) photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite
Two students in different parts of New York State measure the altitude of Polaris above the horizon. The student near new York City finds the angle fo be 41o. The student near Massena finds the angle to be 45o. Which statement best is supported by this information?
(C) The surface of the Earth is curved.
The circumference of the Earth is about 4.0 x 104 kilometers. this value is equal to
(B) 40,000 km
(use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
The radius of the Sun is approximately how many times greater than the radius of the Earth?
Compared to the circumference of Earth measure at the Equator, the circumference of Earth measure through the poles is
(C) slightly smaller
At sea level, which location would be closest to the center of the Earth?
(D) the North Pole
At an altitude of 95 miles above Earth's surface, nearly 100% of the incoming energy from the Sun can be detected. At 55 miles above Earth's surface, most incoming x-ray radiation and some incoming ultraviolet radiation can no longer be detected. This missing radiation was most likely
(B) absorbed in the thermosphere
An air temperature of 95oC most often exists in which layer of the atmosphere?
What will happen when an object is heated?
(C) Its mass will remain the same and its volume will increase.
What is a cubic centimeter equal to?
As the altitude increases within Earth's stratosphere, air temperature generally
(A) increases, only
In which atmospheric layer is most water vapor found?
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the most abundant gas in the troposphere is
Which layer of the atmosphere has the greatest density?
Earth's hydrosphere is best described as the
(A) liquid outer layer of Earth
What is the lithosphere?
the crust and the uppermost mantle, which is the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth.
At which phase are things on earth most dense and least dense?
most dense - solid
least dense - gas
How could contour lines on the map indicate a steep cliff?
the contour lines would be close together
What do contour lines measure?
the height above sea level for that location
How can you tell which way a stream is flowing by the contour lines?
the V bend in the contour line points upstream
What is a natural view of the Earth's surface generated from a topographic map? (natural view - when you're standing horizontal of it)
When the time of day for a certain ship at sea is 12 noon, the time of day at the prime Meridian (0o longitude) is 5 p.m. What is the ship's longitude?
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the location of Slide Mountain is:
(A) 74o 25'N, 42oW (B) 42oN, 74o 25'W
(C) 42oN, 74oW
(D) 42o 25'N, 74o 45' W
(B) 42oN, 74o 25'W
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, what is the straight-line distance in kilometers from Elmira, New York, to Buffalo, New York?
(D) 190 km
Compared to Jupiter and Saturn, Venus and Mars have greater
(C) orbital velocities
How do you find the elevation of a hilltop?
hill top = highest contour + contour interval - 1
How do you find the elevation of a lakebed/depression?
Surface ocean currents curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere because
(C) Earth spins on its axis
What kind of relationship does the altitude of Polaris and the latitude have? (negative, positive, etc.)
Which location would have the greatest angle of insolation on June 21?
(D) 70oW 20oN
What does a Focault Pendulum show us?
rotation of the Earth
What is rotation?
the spinning of an object (planets on their axis)
What is revolution?
the movement of a body around another object in an orbital plane
What causes the phases of the moon?
revolution of moon around the earth because we see different lighted portions of the moon at different times
As seen from New York State, the noon Sun is
(B) never directly overhead
Which statement best explains why different phases of the Moon can be observed from the Earth?
(D) Differing amounts of the Moon's sunlit surface are seen because the Moon revolves around the Earth.
The length of an Earth year is based on Earth's
(D) revolution of approximately 1o/day
What are the 3 laws of planetary motion?
1) The earth travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun.
2) line joining each planet with the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time
3) period of revolution is proportional to the average distance between the planet and the sun
What is orbital velocity?
The speed a planet travels around the sun.
What are the dates of the equinoxes and solstices?
Equinox - Sept. 22, March 21
Solstice - Dec. 31, June 21
What date and time will a person in Vestal have the longest shadow?
Dec 21 at sunrise and sunset
Why do the locations of sunrise and sunset vary in a cyclical pattern throughout the year?
(C) The Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.
What is the altitude of Polaris equal to?
the latitude in the northern hemisphere
What would happen on earth if the axial tilt were increased to 30 degrees?
We would experience colder winters and hotter summers.
If the axis of Earth were not tilted relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun, the result would be
(C) an equal number of hours of daylight at most locations
What are 3 factors controlling the intensity of insolation?
-length of daylight
-which season it is
What is insolation time lag?
time elapsed between most intense radiation and highest air temperatures
What is terrestrial radiation?
it is when radiation is emitted from earth's surface
What is the relationship between the angle of insolation and duration of insolation?
The higher the angle of insolation, the longer period of daylight (duration).
Where does pollution come from and what sources cause the most pollution?
cars, powerplants, factories
humans cause the most pollution
What do closely spaced contour lines and spaced contour lines mean?
closely spaced lines indicate steep slopes and lines spaced farther apart indicate a flatter surface
What proves the earth is round?
Photos from space or the changing angle of polaris
Where would Polaris be in the sky if you were at New York City at 41oN?o
In New York State, solar noon occurs each day when the
(D) Sun is at its highest altitude
Why are constellations observed from New York State different throughout the year?
(B) Earth moves in its orbit
If the Earth's rate of rotation decreased, there would be an increase in
(B) length of time for one Earth day
A sundial measures time based upon the position of the Sun in the sky. This time is called
(B) apparent solar time
Which planet has an orbit with an an eccentricity most similar to the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit around Earth?
In a geocentric model, what object is everything rotating around?
An observer on Earth determines that the apparent diameter of the Moon as viewed from Earth varies in a cyclic manner. The best explanation for this observation is that the
(A) Moon's orbit is elliptical
What causes a solar eclipse?
the moon's shadow blocks sunlight from reaching Earth (new moon phase)
The Milkey Way galaxy is best described as
(C) a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars
What causes a lunar eclipse?
the earth's shadow blocks sunlight from reaching the moon (full moon phase)
What is the Coriolis Effect?
freely moving objects are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and toward the left in the southern hemisphere by the earth's rotation
A light year is
(B) the distance traveled by light in one year
A light-emitting object moving toward an observer will appear to the observer to be emitting waves that are
(B) shorter than normal
According to the big bang theory, the universe began as an explosion and is still expanding. This theory is supported by observations that the stellar spectra of distant galaxies who a
(A) shift toward the red end of the spectrum
The farther a planet is located from the, the
(C) longer its period of revolution
Which statement best describes galaxies?
(D) They may contain billions of stars in a space much larger than our solar system.
What celestial phenomenum most affects radio communication and other electrical atmospheric changes for us on earth?
(C) solar flares
As the sun ages it will be composed of
(B) more helium and less hydrogen
Which of the following stars is least bright?
(B) a white dwarf
Bernard's Star has a surface temperature of about
In which list are the forms of electromagnetic energy arranged in order from longest to shortest wavelengths?
(C) radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays
What are the moon's periods of revolution and rotation?
they are both 27.3 days
Why do we always see the same side of the moon?
they periods of revolution and rotation are the same
When electromagnetic energy travels from air into water, the waves are bent due to the density differences between the air and water. This bending is called
At which temperature would an object radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy?
(C) the temperature of the North Pole on December 21 (-60oF)
When would a person at the equator cast no shadow? (Date & Time)
Solar Noon on March 21 or Sept 23
Which characteristics of a building material would provide the most energy-absorbing exterior covering for a house?
(B) dark colored and rough textured
Pieces of lead, copper, iron, and grant, each having a mass of 1 kilogram and a temperature of 100oC, were removed from a container of boiling water and allowed to cool under identical conditions. Which piece most likely cooled to room temperature first?
During which process does heat transfer occur because of density differences?
What is the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the sun?
The more sunspots, the more magnetic acitivty.
Energy is transferred from the Sun to Earth mainly by
(C) electromagnetic waves
Which phase change requires water to gain 2260 Joules per gram?
(B) liquid water vaporizing
What is potential energy?
The primary method of heat transfer in a solid iron bar is
Liquid water can store more heat energy than an equal amount of any other naturally occurring substance because liquid water
(C) has the higher specific heat
What is kinetic energy?
the energy of motion
Why are the beaches that are located on the souther shore of Long Island often considerably cooler than nearby inland locations on hot summer afternoons?
(C) A sea breeze develops due to the higher specific heat of water and the lower specific heat of land.
Which energy transformation occurs as a rock falls freely from the top of a vertical cliff?
(C) The rock's potential energy decreases and the rock's kinetic energy increases.
How many Joules does it take for heat of fusion and heat of vaporization?
to melt or freeze - 334 J/g
to vaporize or condense - 2,250 J/g
Compared to dull and rough rock surfaces, shiny and smooth rock surfaces are most likely to cause sunlight to be
A gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would warm Earth's atmosphere because carbon dioxide is a
(D) good absorber of infrared radiation
How do you calculate Heat of fusion and Heat of vapor?