Midterms: Earth Science for 8th Grade SP New York

  1. Which action can be performed most accurately using only the human senses?

    (D) counting 28 shells from a beach
  2. Using a ruler to measure the length of a stick is an example of

    (D) extending the sense of sight by using an instrument
  3. A group of students observed and measure various characteristics of a stream for one day. Which statement about the stream is most likely an inference?

    (A) The water level of the stream will rise after the next rainfall.
  4. Which procedure is an example of classifying observed data?

    (A) grouping stars by brightness
  5. A student incorrectly measure the volume of a mineral sample as 83 cubic centimeters when the actual volume was 89 centimeters. What was the student's approximate percent error?

    (D) 6.7%
  6. As air on the surface of Earth warms, the density of the air

    (A) decreases
  7. If each side of a cube is 2.2 cm what is the approximate volume of the cube?
    (A) 2.20 cm3
    (B) 4.84 cm3
    (C) 6.60 cm3
    (D) 10.65 cm3
    (D) 10.65 cm3
  8. (use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
    A person incorrectly measures the mass of a rock as 346 grams. The actual mass is 326 grams. What is the person's approximate percent error?
    (A) 5.8%
    (B) 6.1%
    (C) 8.2%
    (D) 16.3%
    (B) 6.1%
  9. Mineral: A B C D
    Mass: 50g 60g 55g 40g
    Volume: 20mL 15mL 10mL 5mL

    Which mineral has the greatest density?

    (C) D
  10. (use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
    Water has its greatest density at a temperature of

    (A) 4oC
  11. A sphere has a mass of 0.8 grams and a density of 0.4 g/cm3. What is the volume of this sphere?

    (D) 2.0 cm3
  12. Ocean tides are best described as

    (A) predictable and cyclic
  13. Which object best represents a true scale model of the shape of the Earth?

    (C) a ping-pong ball
  14. An example of noncyclic change is the occurrence of

    (D) earthquakes
  15. What is an observation?
    using your senses to learn about your environment
  16. If a cube has a volume of 8 cm3, what is the length of any one side?

    (C) 2 cm
  17. What is an inference?
    drawing a conclusion based on your background knowledge and observations
  18. At which latitude would the Sun be viewed most nearly overhead at noon during the month of June?
    (A) 231/2oN
    (B) 45oN
    (C) 66 1/2oN
    (D) 90oN
    (A) 231/2oN
  19. The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through

    (A) photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite
  20. Two students in different parts of New York State measure the altitude of Polaris above the horizon. The student near new York City finds the angle fo be 41o. The student near Massena finds the angle to be 45o. Which statement best is supported by this information?

    (C) The surface of the Earth is curved.
  21. The circumference of the Earth is about 4.0 x 104 kilometers. this value is equal to

    (B) 40,000 km
  22. (use your Earth Science Reference Tables)
    The radius of the Sun is approximately how many times greater than the radius of the Earth?

    (A) 100
  23. Compared to the circumference of Earth measure at the Equator, the circumference of Earth measure through the poles is

    (C) slightly smaller
  24. At sea level, which location would be closest to the center of the Earth?

    (D) the North Pole
  25. At an altitude of 95 miles above Earth's surface, nearly 100% of the incoming energy from the Sun can be detected. At 55 miles above Earth's surface, most incoming x-ray radiation and some incoming ultraviolet radiation can no longer be detected. This missing radiation was most likely

    (B) absorbed in the thermosphere
  26. An air temperature of 95oC most often exists in which layer of the atmosphere?

    (A) thermosphere
  27. What will happen when an object is heated?

    (C) Its mass will remain the same and its volume will increase.
  28. What is a cubic centimeter equal to?
    a milliliter
  29. As the altitude increases within Earth's stratosphere, air temperature generally

    (A) increases, only
  30. In which atmospheric layer is most water vapor found?

    (A) troposphere
  31. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the most abundant gas in the troposphere is

    (C) nitrogen
  32. Which layer of the atmosphere has the greatest density?

    (C) troposphere
  33. Earth's hydrosphere is best described as the

    (A) liquid outer layer of Earth
  34. What is the lithosphere?
    the crust and the uppermost mantle, which is the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth.
  35. At which phase are things on earth most dense and least dense?
    • most dense - solid
    • least dense - gas
  36. How could contour lines on the map indicate a steep cliff?
    the contour lines would be close together
  37. What do contour lines measure?
    the height above sea level for that location
  38. How can you tell which way a stream is flowing by the contour lines?
    the V bend in the contour line points upstream
  39. What is a natural view of the Earth's surface generated from a topographic map? (natural view - when you're standing horizontal of it)
    a profile
  40. When the time of day for a certain ship at sea is 12 noon, the time of day at the prime Meridian (0o longitude) is 5 p.m. What is the ship's longitude?

    (C) 75oW
  41. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the location of Slide Mountain is:
    (A) 74o 25'N, 42oW
    (B) 42oN, 74o 25'W
    (C) 42oN, 74oW
    (D) 42o 25'N, 74o 45' W
    (B) 42oN, 74o 25'W
  42. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, what is the straight-line distance in kilometers from Elmira, New York, to Buffalo, New York?

    (D) 190 km
  43. Compared to Jupiter and Saturn, Venus and Mars have greater

    (C) orbital velocities
  44. How do you find the elevation of a hilltop?
    hill top = highest contour + contour interval - 1
  45. How do you find the elevation of a lakebed/depression?
    depression = lowest contour - contour interval + 1
  46. Surface ocean currents curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere because

    (C) Earth spins on its axis
  47. What kind of relationship does the altitude of Polaris and the latitude have? (negative, positive, etc.)
  48. Which location would have the greatest angle of insolation on June 21?

    (D) 70oW 20oN
  49. What does a Focault Pendulum show us?
    rotation of the Earth
  50. What is rotation?
    the spinning of an object (planets on their axis)
  51. What is revolution?
    the movement of a body around another object in an orbital plane
  52. What causes the phases of the moon?
    revolution of moon around the earth because we see different lighted portions of the moon at different times
  53. As seen from New York State, the noon Sun is

    (B) never directly overhead
  54. Which statement best explains why different phases of the Moon can be observed from the Earth?

    (D) Differing amounts of the Moon's sunlit surface are seen because the Moon revolves around the Earth.
  55. The length of an Earth year is based on Earth's

    (D) revolution of approximately 1o/day
  56. What are the 3 laws of planetary motion?
    • 1) The earth travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun.
    • 2) line joining each planet with the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time
    • 3) period of revolution is proportional to the average distance between the planet and the sun
  57. What is orbital velocity?
    The speed a planet travels around the sun.
  58. What are the dates of the equinoxes and solstices?
    • Equinox - Sept. 22, March 21
    • Solstice - Dec. 31, June 21
  59. What date and time will a person in Vestal have the longest shadow?
    Dec 21 at sunrise and sunset
  60. Why do the locations of sunrise and sunset vary in a cyclical pattern throughout the year?

    (C) The Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.
  61. What is the altitude of Polaris equal to?
    the latitude in the northern hemisphere
  62. What would happen on earth if the axial tilt were increased to 30 degrees?
    We would experience colder winters and hotter summers.
  63. If the axis of Earth were not tilted relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun, the result would be

    (C) an equal number of hours of daylight at most locations
  64. What are 3 factors controlling the intensity of insolation?
    • -latitude
    • -length of daylight
    • -which season it is
  65. What is insolation time lag?
    time elapsed between most intense radiation and highest air temperatures
  66. What is terrestrial radiation?
    it is when radiation is emitted from earth's surface
  67. What is the relationship between the angle of insolation and duration of insolation?
    The higher the angle of insolation, the longer period of daylight (duration).
  68. Where does pollution come from and what sources cause the most pollution?
    cars, powerplants, factories

    humans cause the most pollution
  69. What do closely spaced contour lines and spaced contour lines mean?
    closely spaced lines indicate steep slopes and lines spaced farther apart indicate a flatter surface
  70. What proves the earth is round?
    Photos from space or the changing angle of polaris
  71. Where would Polaris be in the sky if you were at New York City at 41oN?o
  72. In New York State, solar noon occurs each day when the

    (D) Sun is at its highest altitude
  73. Why are constellations observed from New York State different throughout the year?

    (B) Earth moves in its orbit
  74. If the Earth's rate of rotation decreased, there would be an increase in

    (B) length of time for one Earth day
  75. A sundial measures time based upon the position of the Sun in the sky. This time is called

    (B) apparent solar time
  76. Which planet has an orbit with an an eccentricity most similar to the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit around Earth?

    (D) Saturn
  77. In a geocentric model, what object is everything rotating around?

    (A) Earth
  78. An observer on Earth determines that the apparent diameter of the Moon as viewed from Earth varies in a cyclic manner. The best explanation for this observation is that the

    (A) Moon's orbit is elliptical
  79. What causes a solar eclipse?
    the moon's shadow blocks sunlight from reaching Earth (new moon phase)
  80. The Milkey Way galaxy is best described as

    (C) a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars
  81. What causes a lunar eclipse?
    the earth's shadow blocks sunlight from reaching the moon (full moon phase)
  82. What is the Coriolis Effect?
    freely moving objects are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and toward the left in the southern hemisphere by the earth's rotation
  83. A light year is

    (B) the distance traveled by light in one year
  84. A light-emitting object moving toward an observer will appear to the observer to be emitting waves that are

    (B) shorter than normal
  85. According to the big bang theory, the universe began as an explosion and is still expanding. This theory is supported by observations that the stellar spectra of distant galaxies who a

    (A) shift toward the red end of the spectrum
  86. The farther a planet is located from the, the

    (C) longer its period of revolution
  87. Which statement best describes galaxies?

    (D) They may contain billions of stars in a space much larger than our solar system.
  88. What celestial phenomenum most affects radio communication and other electrical atmospheric changes for us on earth?

    (C) solar flares
  89. As the sun ages it will be composed of

    (B) more helium and less hydrogen
  90. Which of the following stars is least bright?

    (B) a white dwarf
  91. Bernard's Star has a surface temperature of about

    (C) 3000oC
  92. In which list are the forms of electromagnetic energy arranged in order from longest to shortest wavelengths?

    (C) radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays
  93. What are the moon's periods of revolution and rotation?
    they are both 27.3 days
  94. Why do we always see the same side of the moon?
    they periods of revolution and rotation are the same
  95. When electromagnetic energy travels from air into water, the waves are bent due to the density differences between the air and water. This bending is called

    (C) refraction
  96. At which temperature would an object radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy?

    (C) the temperature of the North Pole on December 21 (-60oF)
  97. When would a person at the equator cast no shadow? (Date & Time)
    Solar Noon on March 21 or Sept 23
  98. Which characteristics of a building material would provide the most energy-absorbing exterior covering for a house?

    (B) dark colored and rough textured
  99. Pieces of lead, copper, iron, and grant, each having a mass of 1 kilogram and a temperature of 100oC, were removed from a container of boiling water and allowed to cool under identical conditions. Which piece most likely cooled to room temperature first?

    (C) lead
  100. During which process does heat transfer occur because of density differences?

    (B) convection
  101. What is the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the sun?
    The more sunspots, the more magnetic acitivty.
  102. Energy is transferred from the Sun to Earth mainly by

    (C) electromagnetic waves
  103. Which phase change requires water to gain 2260 Joules per gram?

    (B) liquid water vaporizing
  104. What is potential energy?
    stored energy
  105. The primary method of heat transfer in a solid iron bar is

    (D) conduction
  106. Liquid water can store more heat energy than an equal amount of any other naturally occurring substance because liquid water

    (C) has the higher specific heat
  107. What is kinetic energy?
    the energy of motion
  108. Why are the beaches that are located on the souther shore of Long Island often considerably cooler than nearby inland locations on hot summer afternoons?

    (C) A sea breeze develops due to the higher specific heat of water and the lower specific heat of land.
  109. Which energy transformation occurs as a rock falls freely from the top of a vertical cliff?

    (C) The rock's potential energy decreases and the rock's kinetic energy increases.
  110. How many Joules does it take for heat of fusion and heat of vaporization?
    • to melt or freeze - 334 J/g
    • to vaporize or condense - 2,250 J/g
  111. Compared to dull and rough rock surfaces, shiny and smooth rock surfaces are most likely to cause sunlight to be

    (A) reflected
  112. A gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would warm Earth's atmosphere because carbon dioxide is a

    (D) good absorber of infrared radiation
  113. How do you calculate Heat of fusion and Heat of vapor?
    • HF = (x)grams x 334 J/g
    • HV = (x)grams x 2,260 J/g
Card Set
Midterms: Earth Science for 8th Grade SP New York
Midterms: Earth Science for 8th Grade SP New York