Chapter 8

  1. What are the 4 characteristics of language?
    • 1. Language is symbolic
    • 2. Semantic ( has meaning)
    • 3. Generative (can generate an infinite number of meanings)
    • 4. Structured
  2. Words have 2 kinds of meanings...
    • Denotative: literal definition
    • Connotative: Emotional overtones and secondary meanings
  3. What is semantics, and what is syntax?
    • Semantics is the study of word meanings and combinations
    • Syntax is the system of rules defining how we may meaningfully combine words within a language (grammar)
  4. Describe the structure of language
    • -Smallest speech units are phonemes
    • -The smallest units of meaning are morphemes
  5. What are morphological markers?
    • Sounds that modify words' meanings.
    • ex) 's, -ed, -ing
  6. Describe the 2 structures of language
    Surface structure: the way symbols are combined within a given language. Rules for = syntax

    Deep Structure: The underlying meaning of the combined symbols. Rules for = semantics
  7. Describe the 2 ways of processing words
    1. Whole word Recognition. Top down processing. Reading words we already know

    2. Phonetic decomposition. Bottom up processing. reading a new word
  8. Describe the development of language
    • Babbling: intentional vocaliztion that lacks specific meaning.
    • Cooing: making all the phonemes they can make
    • Reduplicative babbling: long streams of syllables
    • Conversational babbling: has the syntax of speech and the patterns/tone of language, but still no meaning

    holophrases: single word to convey a sentence
  9. What are the 4 language acquisition theories?
    • 1. Imitation. Learning by hearing.
    • (But language has generativity: children can combine words if they dont know a word...evidence that not all learning of language is just imitation)

    2. Nativist. Wired to acquire language (nurture). Language acquisition device: part of brain solely for producing and analyzing language

    3. social pragmatics. Meaning is learned via social context

    4. General Cognitive processing. Language acquired through general cognitive skills that are used for learning in general. we are hardwired to learn
  10. What is anthropomorphism?`
    the tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings
  11. What is anthropocentrism?`
    The tendency to think that human beings have nothing in common with animals
  12. describe the 2 views of thinking
    linguistic determinism: the view that all thinking is represented linguistically. language causes or determines a world view.

    linguistic relativity: characteristics of language shape our thought processes. Language influences particular manners or acting or thinking
  13. Categories
    Collections of objects that share core properties
  14. Prototypes
    A hypothetically typical member of a category
  15. schema
    mental model stored in memory and used to make assumptions about situations and events we encounter.
  16. confirmation bias
    we tend to look for evidence that confirms what we believe, rather than evidence that will disprove it
  17. algorithm
    any method that guarantees a solution to a problem
  18. heuristics
    • guiding principles or rules of thumb that are used to solve problems
    • Does NOT guarantee a solution
  19. availability heuristic
    involves basing judements on the ease with which relevant instances can be retrieved from memory
  20. fundamental fixedness
    tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
  21. mental set
    persistence to use problem solving strategies that have worked in the past
  22. alternative outcomes effect
    people's belief about the probability of an outcome changes depending on how the alternative outcomes are distributed
Card Set
Chapter 8
Language, Thinking, and Reasoning