Bio-38 Vocab

  1. Calorie
    equals 1000 calories, or 1 kilocalorie (kcal)

    a calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
  2. *List the 6 nutrients needed by the body.
    *The nutrients that the body needs are water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
  3. *What is the importance of water in the body?
    *Every cell in the human body needs water because many of the body's processes, including chemical reactions, take place in water.
  4. carbohydrates
    simple and complex carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body
  5. fats
    formed from fatty acids and glycerol
  6. proteins
    supply raw materials for growth and repair of structures such as skin and muscle
  7. vitamins
    organic molecules that help regulate body processes, often working with enzymes
  8. minerals
    inorganic nutrients that the body needs, usually in small amounts
  9. *List the organs of the digestive system.
    *The digestive system includes the mouth, pharynx, esophogus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Several major accessory structures, including the salivary glands, the pancreas, and the liver add secretions to the digestive system.
  10. *Explain the function of the digestive system.
    *The function of the digestive system is to help convert foods into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells of the body.
  11. amylase
    enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches and releases sugars
  12. esophagus
    food tube that leads to stomach
  13. peristalsis
    contractions of smooth muscle that squeeze the food through the esophagus into the stomach
  14. stomach
    food from the esophagus empties into this large muscular sac
  15. chyme
    a mixture of stomach fluids and food
  16. small intestine
    digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
  17. pancreas
    gland that:

    • 1. produces hormones
    • 2. produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
    • 3. produces sodium bocarbonate (a base that neutralizes stomach acid so the enzymes will be effective)
  18. liver
    produces bile, a fluid loaded with lipids and salts
  19. villi (singular: villus)
    fingerlike projections
  20. large intestine (colon)
    primary function is to remove water from the undigested material that is left
  21. *What are the functions of the kidneys?
    *The kidneys play an important role in maintaining homeostasis. They remove waste products from the blood; maintain blood pH; and regulate the water content of the blood and, therefore, blood volume.
  22. kidneys
    organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood
  23. ureter
    tube that leaves each kidney, carrying urine to the urinary bladder
  24. urinary bladder
    saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted
  25. nephrons
    the functional units of the kidney
  26. *Describe how blood is purified.
    *As blood enters a nephron through the arteriole, impurities are filtered out and emptied into the collecting duct. The purified blood exits the nephron through the venule.
  27. filtration
    passing a liquid or a gas through a filter to remove wastes
  28. glumerulus
    small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of the nephron
  29. Bowman's capsule
    hollow, cup-shaped structure that encases the glumerulus
  30. reabsorption
    the process in which fliuid is taken back into a vessel
  31. loop of Henle
    section of the nephron tubule in which water is conserved and the volume of urine minimized
  32. urethra
    tube that releases urine from the body
Card Set
Bio-38 Vocab