AP Psych Vocab list 4

  1. Attatchment
    any strong bond between a person and another person/object that produces anxiety when separated.
  2. socialization
    • a continuing process where by an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her
    • social position.
  3. Aggression
    any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
  4. infant-mother attachment
    a critical bond between a child and its primary caregiver necessary for proper development
  5. Intelligence
    mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
  6. Longitudinal research
    in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
  7. Socioeconomic status
    a measure of an individual or family’s relative economic and social ranking
  8. Physical Dependence (addiction)
    any drug that if you stop using it quickly you will die
  9. Psychological dependence (addiction)
    Will cause distress and anxiety when stopped being used.
  10. critical periods
    an optimal period in an organism’s life when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
  11. Maturation
    biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
  12. Psychoanalytic Theory
    Freud’s theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
  13. Naturalistic Observation
    observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
  14. Assimilation
    (Piaget) interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas
  15. Formal Operational Thinking
    the type of abstract logic, in which people begin to think beyond concrete reasoning, that Piaget describes in the Formal Operational Stage of development
  16. Intelligence Quotient
    (IQ) defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 (Average person for a given age is given a score of 100
  17. Stages of Moral Reasoning
    (Kohlberg) Preconventional (obey to avoid punishment or gain rewards), conventional (upholds laws and rules because they are laws), and post conventional (follows what one personally believes to be ethically right)
  18. Observational Learning
    learning by observing others; Albert Bandura
  19. Cross-Sectional Research
    studying the same condition in distinctly different groups of people over the same period of time
  20. Formal Operational Stage
    in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (around age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
  21. Accommodation
    (Piaget) adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
  22. Concrete Operational Stage
    – (Piaget) the stage of cognitive development (about age 6-11) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
  23. Tabula Rasa
    the theory that humans are born like a “clean slate”; this favors the nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate
  24. Stress
    the cognitive and physical response to a threatening or challenging stimulus
  25. Conservation
    (Piaget) the principle (believed to be a part of concrete operational stage) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
  26. Gender Identity
    one’s sense of being male or female
  27. Social Learning Theory
    the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
  28. Twin Studies
    one of a family of designs in behavior genetics that aid the study of individual differences by highlighting the role of environmental and genetic causes on behavior
  29. Modeling
    the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
  30. Spacing effect
    The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better loing-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
  31. ´╗┐Rooting Reflex
    a baby’stendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth,and search for the nipple
  32. Theory of Mind
    (Piaget – Preoperational Stage) people’si deas about their own and others; mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
  33. Basic Trust
    – (Erikson) a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriateexperiences with responsive caregivers and attachment
  34. Gestalt Psychology
    psychologists who emphasize our tendency to perceive/integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
  35. Flashbulb Memory
    An exceptionally clear recollection of an important emotion packed event. A very vivid episodic memory.
  36. Functionalism
    a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
  37. Introspection
    observation or examination of one's own mental and emotional state, mental processes, etc.; the act of looking within oneself
  38. Attribution Theory
    suggests how we explain someone’s behavior – by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
  39. Meme
    Social trend, and idea that spreads through a culture virally
  40. Mirror neurons
    Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when ovserving another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
  41. Experimental group
    the group of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
  42. Normal Distribution
    – the symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; most scores fall near the mean, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
  43. Central Tendency
    – the measurement of the degree to which data clusters around a certain set of numbers (mean, median, mode)
  44. Mean
    the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
  45. Null Hypothesis
    a statistical hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true
  46. median
    middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
  47. Random Sampling
    a chance selection from a population that ensures the experimenter is testing a representative sample
  48. Representative Sample
    small quantity of a group whose characteristics exemplify that of the population
  49. Standard Deviation
    a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
  50. Reliability
    the ability of an experiment to have similar results after being repeated multiple times
Card Set
AP Psych Vocab list 4
List number 4 of 50