1. amino acid pool
    a mix of new and existing amino acids found in the body
  2. amino acids
    the building block of proteins
  3. anabolism
    becomes essential under certain physiological conditions
  4. antibodies
    large protein molecules that attack antigens as part of an immune response
  5. branched chain amino acids
    amino acids with a structure that forms a branched chain; includes valine, isoleucine, and leucine
  6. buffers
    compounds that allow fluids and tissues to keep a constant pH
  7. catabolism
    the breaking down of cellular material, including tissue
  8. catalysts
    substances that alter the rate of a reaction without being changed themselves
  9. complementary proteins
    proteins from different sources that combine to form a complete protein
  10. complete proteins
    proteins that contain all the essential amino acids
  11. conditionally essential amino acid
    an amino acid that becomes essential under certain physiological conditions
  12. demination
    a process that removes nitrogen from a substance
  13. denaturation
    a process that alters proteins by breaking some of the chemical bonds
  14. dipeptide
    two amino acids
  15. edema
    fluid accumulation in tissue that causes swelling
  16. enzymes
    proteins that are responsible for catalyzing chemical reactions
  17. essential amino acids
    amino acids that are not able to be synthesized in the body and are therefore required in the diet
  18. Hormones
    chemicals synthesized in the body that exert an effect elsewhere in the body
  19. hydrophilic
    that which attracts water
  20. hydrophobic
    that which repels water
  21. immune response
    the way in which the body defends against foreign substances, such as with antigens
  22. inborn error of metabolism
    an inherited defect in the way a substrate is metabolized
  23. incomplete proteins
    proteins that do not contain all the essential amino acids
  24. kwashiorkor
    malnutrition that occurs because of insufficient protein intake
  25. lacto-ovo vegetarians
    vegetarians who consume no animal flesh foods but do consume eggs and milk products
  26. limiting amino acid
    the amino acid present in the least amount in a food
  27. marasmus
    malnutrition that occurs because of insufficient energy intake
  28. nitrogen balance
    the difference between the amount of nitrogen taken in and that lost
  29. nitrogen equilibrium
    when nitrogen intake and losses are equal; also called zero nitrogen balance
  30. nonessential amino acids
    amino acids that the body is able to synthesize and therefore are not required in the diet
  31. oncotic pressure
    the effect of proteins on fluid balance
  32. peptide bonds
    bonds between amino acids
  33. pescatarians
    vegetarians who consume no animal flesh proteins other than from seafood
  34. polypeptide
    10 or more amino acids bound together
  35. primary structure
    the specific sequence of amino acids found in a protein
  36. protein digestibility-corrected amino acid (PDCAA) score
    a method to quantify the quality of a protein based on its composition and digestibility; also called biological value
  37. protein quality
    the assessment of protein composition and digestibility
  38. protein synthesis
    the process by which cells build proteins specific to the needs of the body
  39. protein turnover
    the combined processes of protein synthesis and degradation
  40. satiation
    the process that affects the termination of a meal, a type of fullness
  41. satiety
    the process that affects the amount of time until the next meal, a type of fullness
  42. semi-vegetarians
    vegetarians who occasionally eat meat; also called flexitarians
  43. substrates
    the substances that act as the reactants in a chemical reaction
  44. transamination
    the transfer of nitrogen from one chemical group to another
  45. tripeptide
    three amino acids
  46. vegan
    a vegetarian who consumes no animal flesh proteins and no foods derived from an animal, such as dairy foods, eggs, and honey
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