chapter 3

  1. The study of the composition, structure, appearance, stability occurrence, and associations of
  2. A naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous solid with a specific chemical composition
    and crystalline structure.
  3. The smallest unit
    of an element retaining the physical and chemical properties of that element.
  4. Center of an atom containing protons and neutrons.
  5. Negatively charged
    (-) particles which revolve around the nucleus
  6. The number of protons contained in the nucleus

    Atoms of the same element always have the
    same number of protons.
    Atomic number
  7. The
    sum of the protons and neutrons
    Atomic mass
  8. Atoms with different numbers of neutrons.
  9. nucleus spontaneously loses energy by emitting radiation and changing from one element (parent) into
    another element (daughter).
    Radioactive decay
  10. Chemical Reactions
    When two elements combine together, they produce chemical compounds. Chemical compounds share electrons.
    • A. Ionic bonds – held together by opposite charges
    • B. Covalent bonds – electrons are shared by multiple atoms
    • C. Metallic bonds – lose electrons easily.
  11. Atoms of a gas or liquid join in certain chemical proportions and crystalline arrangement.
  12. When do minerals form?
    • 1.Fall in temperature of a liquid below its freezing point
    • Crystallization of ice forms below 32 degrees

  13. the most abundant minerals in the Earth’s crust. Composed of Oxygen (O) and Silicon (Si), the two most abundant elements in the crust.
  14. 8 classes of minerals

    Carbonates – carbon ion surrounded by 3 oxygen ions, arranged in sheets

    Example: calcite, dolomite

    – oxygen is bonded to metallic ions

    Example: hematite

    – sulfide ion (S2-) is bonded to metallic ions E

    Example: pyrite

    – sulfur atom is bonded to 4 oxygen ions

    Example: gypsum

    Elements – pure elements Example: copper, gold
  15. measure of the ability to scratch or be scratched
  16. Tendency of a mineral to break along flat planar surfaces.
  17. 3. Luster – how the surface of the mineral reflects light

    4. Color – appearance of a mineral in light
    - streak: color of powdered mineral

    5. Specific gravity – weight of a mineral divided by the weight of an equal volume of pure water
    at 4 degrees Celsius.

    6. Crystal habit – the shape individual crystals grow.
  18. A naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals or non-mineral solid matter
  19. -mineralogy: minerals which comprise the rock

    - texture: describes the size and shapes
    of the minerals and how they are put together.

    a. coarse – individual grains can easily
    be seen

    b. fine – individual
    grains are not visible
  20. all rocks formed by solidification of molten rock
    Igneous rocks
  21. All rocks formed as the burial products of layers of sediments. Most formed under water.
    Sedimentary rocks
  22. All rocks formed by the transformation of existing rocks through temperature and /or high pressure.
    Metamorphic rocks
  23. Types of igneous rocks

    A.Intrusive – magma
    (molten rock) moved into other rock underground.
    - slow cooling, allows individual
    crystals to grow quite large.

    B. Extrusive rocks – magma reaches the surface of the earth through eruption from
    - very rapid cooling, individual crystals
    are very tiny. Glassy, fine grained textures.
  24. Sedimentary Rocks

    -Formed from
    sediments: layers of loose particles created from weathering and erosion.

    Weathering– chemical and physical processes that break up and decay rocks into smaller
    rocks or fragments.

    Erosion– a set of processes that loosen soil and rock and move them to a place of

    Siliciclastic sediments – physically deposited particles laid down by
    running water, wind, and ice forming layers of sand, silt, and gravel.

    Chemical and biochemical sediments – new chemical substances formed by precipitation.
  25. process which converts sediments into rocks
  26. Metamorphic Rocks
    Result when high temperatures and pressure are applied to igneous and sedimentary
    rocks. The existing rocks are changed into metamorphic rocks.

    Regional metamorphism – extends over large regions where two tectonic plates are
    colliding together.

    Contact metamorphism – occurs in a very small area where igneous or sedimentary rocks
    are in direct contact with high heat or pressure.

    Foliation – wavy or flat planes formed when a rock undergoes metamorphism.
  27. Ore – large enough quantities of mineral deposits from which valuable metals can be
    recovered profitably.

    Hydrothermal solutions – when magma is moving through rock, it comes in contact with groundwater. The water can carry off important minerals in a solution into areas the magma does not reach.

    Veins– the joints and fractures in rock where economically important minerals are deposited by hydrothermal solutions.
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chapter 3