Personality Psychology exam 1

  1. Personality
    you unique and stanble traits of being and is consistent throughout a beings lifetime.
  2. Psychoanalytic approach
    • unconscious thinking is responsible for differences in behavior
    • unconscious thinking
  3. Trait approach
    • Identify where a person might lie along a contiuum of various personality characteristics
    • dimension scales
  4. Humanistic approach
    • Focusing on the positve side of human nature and freewill.
    • positive side of human nature
  5. Behavioral/Social learning
    • consistent behavior as a result of conditioned or learned behavior
    • conditioned or learned behavior
  6. Cognitive
    • differences in the way people process information to explain behavior
    • thought process
  7. Other names for "tests"
    • assessment
    • test
    • measure
    • instrument
    • scale
  8. collectivist culture
    • type of culture in which people are more concerned about belonging in a larger group
    • family, tribe, or nation
    • favor cooperation more than competition
    • more seen in Asia, Central America, and South America
  9. Individualist culture
    • type of culture in which people are viewed as placing more emphasis on individual needs and accomplishments
    • more independant
    • seen most in the U.S. and most Northern European countries
    • competition is more than cooperation
  10. reliability
    a test is reliable if the data is consistent over time when the test is repeated
  11. Tests of responsibility
    • Test-retest
    • split-test
  12. Test-retest
    when someone is administered the same test over time
  13. Split-test
    Taking parts of a test and comparing those parts to one another
  14. Validity
    Is the test supposed to test what it is supposed to test?
  15. Tests of validity
    • content validity
    • construct validity
    • predictive validity
  16. content validity
    does the content make sense according to the topic?
  17. construct validity
    does it correlate with what it should or shouldn't correlate with
  18. predictive validity
    does it predict a difference in behavior?
  19. Self-report tests
    • conscious influences
    • often simple tests that ask closed answer questions
    • Example: MNPI, 16 PF questionnaire, NEO personality inventory
  20. Projective Test
    • unconscious influences
    • tests that ask for open-ended answers
    • Example: Rorschach test and Thematic apperception test (TAT)
    • less reliable and valid
    • used and sworn effective by psychoanalysts
    • proveds valuable insight and helps build relationship between therapist and patient
  21. MNPI
    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    • designed to test psychological disorders
    • test for depression, hysteria, paranoia, and schizophrenia
    • Will not diagnose a disease
  22. NEO Personality Inventory
    • 240 question assessment that tests five major personality traits
    • Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness
  23. 16 PF questionnare
    • Assessment that tests 16 normal adult personality dimensions
    • often used for job applications
  24. The Rorschach Test
    • Ink blots
    • used to examine a persons personality characteristics and emotional functioning
  25. Thematic Apperception test
    • TAT
    • subject looks at a picture and tells a story about the test
    • used to examine a subjects unconscious
  26. The "Big 5" personality trait
    • Neuroticism
    • Extraversion
    • Openness
    • Agreeableness
    • Conscientiousness
  27. Theory
    A general statement about the relationship between constructs or events.
  28. Hypothesis
    • Formal prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is logically derived from the theory
    • derived from a theory
  29. correlational research
    • When: used to investigate relationships between variables
    • How: measure both or all groups involved in study
    • limit: does not give a cause
    • keywords: relationship, related, linked to, associated
  30. Correlation coefficient
    • between -1 to 1
    • the closer to one the correlation is, the stronger the relationship is
  31. positive correlation
    • Both variables travel in the same direction
    • 0-1 (0 to .2= no correlation, .2 to .4= weak correlation, .4 to .6 =moderate correlation, .6 to .8 =strong correlation
    • Example: The more time one spends studying, the better grades that person will recieve on an exam
  32. Negative Correlation
    • Both variables that travel in opposite directions
    • -0 to -1 (0 to -.2= no correlation,
    • -.2 to -.4= weak correlation, .-4 to .-6 =moderate correlation, -.6 to -.8
    • =strong correlation
    • Example: The more time someone spends partying the person is most likely to recive a lower score on an exam
  33. Experimental Research
    • When: when you want to draw cause and effect
    • How: manipulate one of the variables under controlled conditions
    • limit: hard to make entirely random and hard to control variables
  34. Independent variable
    • The variable in a experiment that is being manipulated
    • causes direct variable
    • Example: Different temperatures may cause subjects to score higher on test ( temperature is independant variable)
  35. Dependent variable
    The outcome that is affected by the independent variable
  36. Why you may want more than 1 Independent variable
    There may be interactions between variables
  37. Why you may want more than 1 Dependent variable
    The Independant variable may have influenced another dependent variable
  38. A true experiment
    • A manipulated independent variable while everything else is controlled
    • randomly assigned groups
    • There will be an infinite amount of independent variables if groups aren't randomly assigned
  39. Experimental Groups
    The group that recieves treatment(independent variable)
  40. Control Group
    The group that doesn't get treatment
  41. Sampling Bias
    • subjects tested are not chosen by random
    • corrected by random assignment
  42. Confounding bias
    • other variables may have affected dependent variable
    • corrected by randomly assigning groups
  43. Placebo effects
    • People belive that treatment actually works
    • corrected by blind study
  44. Experimentor effect
    • The experimenter's expectations influence results
    • corrected by a double blind study
  45. Social desirability effect
    • subject is not comfortable with test or answers on test
    • anonymity or non-self report
  46. Significance Test
    • Tests that determine if group averages were found from real effects or just by chance
    • Example: ANOVA, Chi-square, or t-test
  47. P-value
    The number that determines the significance between dependent variables
  48. Interpreting P-value
    • n = number of subjects in group
    • N = total number of subjects in group
    • P < .05 means that there is a significant difference
    • P > .10 means that there is not a significant difference
    • P between .05 and .10 means that there is a marginally significant. This usually means that you need to get more data and withold judgement
  49. Replication
    When an experiment is done by another researcher. If similar results are found in future experiments then the experiment is seen as significant in terms of a genuine relationship
  50. Freud
    • bringing unconscious thoughts into the conscience
    • psychoanalytic theory
  51. Jung
    Analytic psychology
  52. Adler
    individual Psychology
  53. Erikson
    Ego Psychology
  54. Psychoanalytic theory
    The mind is like an ice berg whereas the majority of the ego and part of the superego are seen in the conscious and the id is completely submerged in the unconscious
  55. Three levels of consciousness
    • conscious- what you are thinking about at the moment ( contains a small amount of the ego and superego
    • preconscious- if prompted you can bring thought into the conscious easily (contains a larger amount of the ego and superego
    • unconscious- thoughts that you don't have access to (contains a small part of the ego and superego and the entire id)
  56. id
    Part of the conscious that seeks only pleasure and immediate personal satisfaction
  57. ego
    • that part of the conscience that mediate between the the id and the superego
    • reality principle
  58. superego
    • the conscience only principle
    • represents what you can and cannot do
  59. Repress
    actively trying to keep memories out of the conscious
  60. projection
    • accusing another of having a problem that you are having yourself
    • I am selfish however I accuse others of being selfish
  61. displacement
    • similar to regression but do not mix between the two
    • taking anger out on another living being however it is not the one who caused the anger
  62. reaction formation
    • acting the opposite of how you really feel
    • example: a man who is really homosexual who partakes in hate crimes against other homosexuals
  63. regression
    • similar to displacement but do not mix the two
    • going back to childlike behavior or thinking
    • your own specific childlike behavior
  64. rationalization
    justifying logic with excuses
  65. identification
    identifying with a group or individual of higher social status to make yourself feel better
  66. sublimation
    • only healthy defense mechanism
    • taking out negative feelings in a healther manner such as sports, art or poetry
  67. libido
    sexual or life energy
  68. thanatos
    death or violent energy
  69. catharsis
    the reduction of tension after we laugh
  70. Oral stage
    • age: 0-1 year of age
    • focus: mouth, lips and toungue
    • task: weening from the breast
    • possible fixations: oral fixation which may manifest in smoking, overeating, overdrinking, any bad habits with mouth
  71. Anal stage
    • Age: 2-3 years of age
    • focus: anus and feces
    • Task: potty training; trying to learn control over muscle group (as well as trying to please primary caregiver in doing so)
    • fixation: anal fixation (anal retentive or anal repulsive)
  72. Phallic stage
    • Age: 4-5 years of age
    • focus:genitals
    • stage can be identified if children are caught "playing with themselves" in public
    • task: oedipus or electra complex
  73. latency stage
    • Age: 6-12 years
    • formation of sexuality; getiing to know one's own body
    • learning social skills that are necessary for mature sexual relations
    • there is no task, fixation, or adult manifestation
  74. Genital stage
    • Age: puberty on
    • focus: genitals
    • sexual relations with others
  75. oedipus complex
    • little boys want the attention of the mother and the father is in the way of getting all of that attention
    • freud believed that it creates an anxiety of being castrated by the father
    • corrected by identifying with the father as much as possible
  76. electra complex
    • Girls suffer from penis envy
    • may develop sense of inferiority and jealousy towards males
    • corrected by identifying with the mother
  77. Anal Retentive personality
    person tries to overly control things; extremely clean,
  78. Anal Repulsive personality
    person is very sloppy and may sometimes be aggresive (sometimes mostly towards women)
  79. Psychoanalysis
    • Also known as the talking cure
    • bringing unconscious thoughts into the conscious
    • once the unconscious thoughts have surfaced therapist must help the ego to gain control over the id and superego
  80. transferance
    When the patient will talk to the therapist as if the therapist once was a person of significance in the patients past
  81. countertransferance
    • where the therapist displaces their own thoughts and feelings toward other people in his life onto the patient
    • therapist must first have this done to him first and must be licensed to do so
  82. Free association
    recording thoughts that first come in mind
  83. dream analysis
    • dreams provide id impulses with a stage for expressing itself
    • our dreams represent the thigns and events that we desire
    • dreams associate with the libido
  84. freudian slips
    looking at the misstatements of a patient
  85. hypnosis
    • putting the ego in a state of suspended state
    • freud believed that one could bypass the ego and get straight into the unconscious thoughts by hypnotizing patient
  86. projective tests
    using tests such as the roarshach or TAT to test to look at the answers to represent unconscious material
  87. accident
    Freud believed that accidents really aren't accidents but inentional actions caused by unconscious impulses
  88. Symbolic behavior
    looking at daily behaviors as symbolic gestures of unconscious thoughts
  89. human figure drawing test
    • often used in children to view their inner thoughts and feelings
    • a person is given a blank sheet of paper and is asked to draw a human
  90. freud's theory of humor
    • freud believed that laughing at agressive jokes are a way of releasing aggression in a socially appropriate manner
    • releases a catharsis or energy
  91. analytic psychology
    • Carl Jung
    • thought that the driving force for development was spiritual energy
    • people continue to develop throughout lifespan
  92. collective unconscious
    memories and other non physical attitudes that are passed on through ancestors
  93. archetypes
    • people of individual cultures have a similar group of beliefs
    • example: god and religion
  94. extraversion v introversion
    created by Jung and is thought to be a hereditary trait
  95. extraversion
    people that prefer the company of others
  96. intraversion
    not necessarily shy but finds self's inner world more entertaining
  97. Individual Psychology
    • created by adler
    • need for superiority
  98. need for superiority
    • everyone needs to feel above average
    • meaning that everyone needs to have at least one thing that makes them better than others or will suffer from an inferiority complex
  99. Ego Psychology
    • aka identity psychology
    • psychosocial stages of development
  100. Trust v Mistrust
    • Age:0-1
    • Are my basic needs being met?
    • yes: trust becomes a default behavior
    • no: trust will not immediately be present
  101. Autonomy v shame/doubt
    • Age: 2-3
    • Can I learn things on my own?
  102. Initiative vs guilt
    • Age: 4-6
    • Am I good or bad?
    • mostly learned from parent
    • punishing behavior not child
  103. Indutry v inferiority
    • Age:6 through puberty
    • Am I competant or worthless?
    • learned from peers
  104. Identity v confusion
    • Age: adolescence
    • Who am I? Where am I going?
  105. Intimacy v Isolation
    • Age: Early adulthood
    • Am I capable of having a meaningful relationship or will I live in isolation?
    • Not necessarily a romantic relationship but a relationship with another person
  106. Generativity v self-absorbtion
    • Age: middle adulthood
    • Am I producing something of value?
    • happens when death becomes apparant and you start to think outward from the self
  107. Integrity v despair
    • Age: late adulthood
    • Have I lived a full life?
  108. Neo-Freudian
    • Jung, Adler, Erikson
    • ascribed to freuds principles of development but disagreed with sexual influences
  109. Absorption
    • How responsive one is to hypnosis
    • mostly people who are open to new experiences and are prone to fantasies and daydreaming
Card Set
Personality Psychology exam 1
Personality psychology terms