1. composition
    • The overall plan or structure of a work of art
    • composition denotes the relationship among component parts
    • involves balance and harmony
    • depends on formal elements are arranged
    • distinct from subject matter
  2. plane
    A flat surface having a direction in space in which the composition is rendered.
  3. balance
    • harmonious blending of formal elements
    • simplest form is symmetry
  4. line
    • A line is a path traced by a moving point.
    • no width or volume in geometry
    • many qualities in art depending on how its drawn
    • parallel lines harmonious
  5. depth
    • The illusion of three dimensions
    • in a two-dimensional image.
  6. perspective
    • The illusion of depth in a
    • 2 - dimensional work of art
    • developed by the use of mathematical systems
  7. physical properties of color
    • The rays of light that are
    • composed of waves of various
    • wave lengths that the human brain perceives as color.
  8. hue
    • The individual waves of light that
    • the brain perceives as color such
    • as Red, Orange, Yellow, etc.
    • synonymous with color
  9. value
    • The relative lightness or darkness
    • of an image.
    • also called brightness, shade, tone
    • characteristic of achromatic and chromatic art.
    • normal ale is amount of light it reflects at usual intensity
  10. intensity
    • Also know as saturation,
    • intensity refers to the brightness
    • or dullness of a color.
    • different methods of changing intensity
  11. Archaic Style
    • 600-480 B.C.
    • A stylistic form of Greek art that
    • was highly influenced by Egyptian Art.
    • painting technique known as black-figure
    • red-figure painting introduced during
    • time when monumental sculpture of humans first appeared in Greece
  12. Classical Style
    • 450-400 B.C.
    • The Greek idealistic art form focusing
    • on youth and the perfect body form.
    • known as the "golden age of greek art"
    • Athens popular place during
  13. Polykleitos/Polyclitus of Argos
    • c.440 B.C.
    • The Greek sculptor who sculpted
    • Doryphoros, the “spear-bearer” statue.
    • admired work known as embodiementof classical style
    • made first stature with contrapposto
  14. Athens
    • Beginning 7th Century BC
    • 2nd half of the 5th Century B.C.
    • fifth century, site of flowing of the classical style
    • The capital and largest city of modern Greece and where the ancient Acropolis still stands.
    • the site of the parthenon
  15. the Acropolis
    • 2nd half of the 5th Century B.C.
    • Acropolis (from the Greek akros, “hight” or “upper” and polis, “city”) and where the Greek
    • temples were built.
    • elevating rock supporting several temples and other buildings
    • fortified citadel during mycenaean period
  16. Parthenon
    • Date: 448-432 B.C.
    • Doric temple dedicated to the goddess Athena located at the Acropolis
    • Built during Perikles’ rule.
    • Use of architectural refinements to solve optical illusions
    • Phidias was the lead sculptor and built the large sculpture of Athena
  17. Phidias
    • 490-430 B.C.
    • Greek artist/sculptor
    • supervised the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon
    • constructed the Athena statue inside around a wooden frame
    • used different styles to fit decorations around shape of parthenon
  18. Doric
    • 600 – 5th century B.C.
    • The oldest Greek order or systems
    • of classical architecture, along with Ionic
    • and Corinthian orders.
    • used by greeks to decorate and define system of construction at the time
    • named for the Dorians who lived in the mainland
    • uses formal repetitions and logical transitions
  19. Ionic
    • Established by about 600 B.C.
    • The second oldest Greek order or systems of classical architecture, along with Doric and Corinthian orders.
    • round base with alternating convex and concave profile
    • shaft taller in relation to diameter
    • absence of triglyphs and metopes
  20. Corinthian
    • Later part of the 5th century B.C.
    • The last Greek order or systems of classical architecture, along with Doric and Ionic orders.
    • suggests first designed by metalworkers of Corinth
    • used mainly in interiors
    • associated with luxury and "feminine" character
  21. Rome
    • founded 753 B.C., rose to power 323 B.C.
    • Leading city of Italy, located in Western Italy .
    • In 509 B.C. the last king (Etruscan king) was overthrown and the Republic was established.
    • designated as capital of the world
    • melting pot of cultures
  22. Republic
    • 509 B.C.
    • Roman monarchial form of government
    • created after the last Etruscan king was overthrown.
    • ruled by senate and patrician citizens
    • time of punic wars
    • lasted until 27 bc
  23. Empire
    • 27 BC – 330 AD
    • Roman government that replaced the Republic
    • Octavian, who later took the title “Augustus,” became the first emperor.
  24. , Colosseum,
    • c. A. D. 72-80
    • The most important Roman Amphitheater used for public spectacles.
    • built under vespasian
    • exterior consist of arcades
    • ground floor columns tuscan
  25. Pantheon
    • A.D. 117-125
    • Considered the most innovative ancient Roman Temple.
    • built during reign of Hadrian
    • dedicated to the five planetary gods in the second century
    • consists of two parts - portico and rotunda
  26. vaults
    • An arched roof formed by a series of arches in continuation to create a passageway.
    • Typically made of concrete.
  27. dome
    • Roman structure made by rotating a round arch through 180 degrees on its axis.
    • It is a hemisphere in its most basic form.
  28. Robert-Houdin
    • 1805-1871
    • French inventor & magician whose use of stage magic led way to film fantasy.
    • opened theater in paris for magic
    • died of pneumonia
    • given diploma by arab chieftains
  29. Lumieres family
    • ~1890’s
    • Family, particularly brothers, involved in early screen projections and who were also part of the “nouveau riche.”
    • admired Bouguereau
    • inspired Melies to begin film
    • helped make cinema born of magic
  30. Georges Melies
    • 1861-1938
    • French magician & film maker who invented stop-motion film.
    • inspired by robert-houdin
    • fater of film fantasy
    • frequently appeared as devil in films
  31. Guillaume Bouguereau.
    • 1825-1905
    • French artist & teacher who was one of the most respected artists of the Opera’s art establishment.
    • taught at Ecole
    • admired Lumiere
    • influx nced films of Melies
  32. Romanesque Art
    • 11th-12th Centuries
    • Stylistic term which refers to medieval art that borrows features of Roman architecture.
    • rounded arches
    • vigorous stype in many churches
    • precious medals used
  33. Sainte-Foy at Conques in France
    • c.1050-1120
    • The earliest surviving example of a pilgrimage church.
    • irected by the abbot Odolric
    • Romanesque style
    • ome that originally covered the crossing later collapsed and was replaced in the 15th century..
  34. tympanum
    • 11th-12th Centuries
    • The inner archway above doors of a Romanesque (or Greek) portal
    • which often contained elaborate scenes, usually of religious themes.
  35. archivolt
    • 11th -12th Centuries
    • Structure which includes the voussoir & tympanum
    • part of Romanesque portal.
    • composed of bands of ornamental moldings (or other architectural elements) surrounding an arched opening
  36. lintel
    • 11th-12th Centuries
    • Structural feature above the doors and below the tympanum of a Romanesque portal.
  37. mandorla,
    • 11th-12th Centuries
    • An oval of light used in Romanesque tympanum designs.
    • far eastern motif
    • found in last judgment
  38. Last Judgement of Saint-Lazare Cathedral at Autun in France,
    • c.1120-1135
    • A sculptural decorative scene carved in the tympanum of Saint-Lazare.
    • Christ surrounded by mandorla
    • conforms to iconograpic norm in arrangement.
    • Divide right and left, angels and devls
  39. Gothic Art,
    • Popular 1200-1400 (Originated between 1137 and 1144)
    • Pre-Renaissance style of art which began in France before spreading to various parts of Europe
    • developed out of romanesque
    • popular in cathedrals and abbeys
    • christian art typical
  40. Saint-Denis,
    • 1137-1144
    • Gothic-style French royal monastery just north of Paris.
    • early gothic architecture
    • abbot sugar help create
  41. ribbed vaults,
    • 1200-1400
    • Gothic-style vault
    • which replaced the former barrel vaults of Romanesque style
    • and allows more space for windows.
    • used in cathedral
  42. stained glass,
    • 1200-1400
    • Translucent colored glass which is cut into fragments to form a window design
    • used in gothic period
    • allowed light in and provided support
  43. pointed arches,
    • 1200-1400
    • The intersection of 2 arcs of nonconcentric circles.
    • used in gothic period
    • found in cathedrals
  44. flying buttresses,
    • 1200-1400
    • An exterior structure that is made up of thin half-arches (flyers)
    • to provide structural support
    • used in gothic period
    • found in cathedrals
  45. Chartres Cathedral,
    • Built from 1134-1220
    • The cathedral in France,
    • located in Chartes
    • gothic style
    • which dominated both economy and landscape of its surrounding area.
  46. nave,
    • 1200-1400 (Gothic Period)
    • Main central,
    • open space which typically leads to the altar of a Gothic-style church
    • gothic period
    • also found in romanesque art
  47. transept,
    • Prominent 1200-1400
    • The structural feature of a Gothic cathedral
    • which intersects with the nave and
    • separates the choir area from the nave.
    • gothic period
  48. Renaissance,
    • 14th-16th Centuries
    • Italian history’s period of the revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman culture, whose term means “rebirth.”
  49. Humanism,
    • 1300 – 1600
    • The philosophical idea, that man was rational and capable of achieving dignity, intellectual excellence, and high ethical standards by means of a classical education.
    • occurring after the middle ages
    • movement of study toward original greek and roman texts
    • artists back to greek and roman forms
    • latin alphabet preferred
  50. Florence,
    • 1400’s
    • The intellectual, financial and artistic center of Renaissance Italy.
    • previously ravaged by plague
    • santo spirito
    • dome of florence cathedral
  51. Arnolfini Wedding Portrait,
    • 1434
    • Oil on wood painting by
    • Jan van Eyck
    • of an Italian merchant and his wife.
  52. Jan Van Eyck,
    • c. 1380/90-1441
    • The most prominent painter of northern Europe
    • work combines Flemish interest in detail and tactile sensibility with Christian symbolism.
    • painter to the Duke of Burgundy
    • painted arnolfini portrait
  53. Leonardo da Vinci,
    • 1452-1519
    • High Renaissance sculptor, architect and artist who also wrote on many aspects of humanity including the arts and sciences
    • painted mona lisa
    • painted last supper
    • had numerous anatomical drawings
  54. High Renaissance,
    • Late 15th and early 16th Centuries
    • The period of time of exceptional artistic development in Italy, particularly Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael.
  55. Mona Lisa,
    • 1503-5
    • Famous painting by Leonardo da Vinci
    • characterized his mixture of nature, architecture, human form, geometry, and character.
    • figure forms pyramidal shape
    • smile is subject of many interpretations
  56. The Last Supper,
    • c. 1495-98
    • One of the world’s most recognized paintings of the Last Supper of Christ by Leonardo da Vinci.
    • leonardos most important mature work
    • conveys character and dramatic tension
    • uses imposing and unifying architectural settimg
  57. sfumato,
    • An Italian word that means “toned down”, or literally “vanished in smoke,”
    • in reference to characteristics of art, film and architecture.
    • painting mode of renaissance
    • leonardo da vinci prominent practicer
    • Raphael
    • 1483-1520
    • High Renaissance painter who incorporated the forms and philosophies of Greek and Roman art in his work.
    • painter for pope, church
    • knowledge of dephth perception
    • buried in pantheon
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