chapter one summary

  1. how can the SQ3R method help you study more effectively?
    The steps of the SQ3R method provide students with a systematic approach to studying the text. It helps them manage their time more efficiently and gives them a sense of control over their learning and academic performance
  2. what process do scientists used to answer questions about behavior and mental processes?
    The scientific method consists of the orderly and systematic procedures researchers follow
  3. what are the goals of psychology?
    the description, explanation, prediction, and influence of behavior and mental processes
  4. what did Wundt and Titchener contribute to psychology?
    • Wundt established he first psychological lab in 1879.
    • Titchener founded the first school of thought called structuralism.
  5. why is functionalism important in the history of psychology?
    • founded by william james
    • it was the first american school of psychology and broadened the scope of the field to include examination of behavior as well as mental processes
  6. how to behaviorists explain behavior and mental processes?
    • they view observable, measurable behavior as the only appropriate subject matter in psychology
    • also emphasizes the environment as the key determinant of behavior
  7. what do psychoanalytic psychologists believe about the role of the unconscious?
    according to Freud, an individuals thoughts, feelings, and behavior are determined primarily by the unconscious - the part of the mind that one cannot see and cannot control
  8. according to Maslow and Rogers, what motivates human behavior and mental processes?
    • they focus on the uniqueness of human beings and heir capacity for choice, personal growth, and psychological health.
    • humans are motivated by the need for self-actualization
  9. what is the focus of cognitive psychology?
    • focuses on mental processes such as memory,
    • problem solving,
    • concept formation,
    • reasoning and decision making,
    • language and perception
  10. what is the main idea behind evolutionary psychology?
    focuses on how human behaviors necessary for survival have adapted in the face on environmental pressures over the course of evolution
  11. how do biological psychologists explain individual differences in behavior and mental processes?
    they look for connections between specific behaviors and particular biological factors to help explain individual differences
  12. what kinds of variables interest psychologists who take a sociocultural approach?
    the sociocultural approach focuses on how factors such as cultural values affect people's behaviors
  13. what are psychological perspectives, and how are they related to an eclectic position?
    • psychological perspectives are general points of view used for explaining people's behavior and thinking
    • in an eclectic positions, psychologists use a combination of two or more perspectives to explain a particular behavior
  14. how to psychological researchers use naturalistic and laboratory observation?
    • in naturalistic observation researchers observe and record the behavior of participants in a natural setting
    • in laboratory observation researchers exert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses
  15. what are the advantages and disadvantages of the case study?
    • it is appropriate for studying pwoplw with rare psychological disorders
    • disadvantages are the amount of time, expense, and lack of generalizability
  16. how do researchers ensure that survey results are useful?
    they must involve a sample that is representative of the population to which the survey will be applied
  17. what are the strangths and weaknesses of the correlational method?
    • when the correlation between two variables is known, information about once variable can be used to predict the other
    • a correlation cannot be used to support the conclusion that either variable causes the other
  18. why do researchers used experiments to test hypotheses about cause-effect relationships?
    the experimental method is the only research method that can identify the cause-effect relationship
  19. why are experimental and control groups necessary?
    comparing experimental and control groups allows researchers to judge the effects of the independent variable compared to outcomes that occur naturally or in the presence of a placebo
  20. what kinds of factors introduce bias into experimental studies?
    • environmental factors
    • selection bias
    • placebo effect
    • experimenter bias
  21. what are the limitations of the experimental method?
    • experiments are often conducted in unnatural settings, a factor that limits the generalizability of results
    • this study method may be unethical or impossible for some research
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