What is epidemiology use for?
- provides info on the processes and on the disease
- identifies populations at risk or in need of services
- tests preventive interventions for controlling disease
- evaluates effectiveness and quality of interventions and programs
What does epidemiology compares?
- regions and environments
- social factors and access
- similarities and differences
Epidemiology of community...
- program plan
- program operations
- $ for programs
what is the epidemiology of patient?
- treatment plan
- $ for treatment
what is index?
- standard method of rating on a scale
- plural = indices
What are the types of measurement?
- ordinal: good/fair/poor
- nominal: arbitrary scales (grade)
- interval/ ration: percentages, x out of y
- irreversible: survival data
- reversible: remineralization?
To get relevant, accurate, meaningful data, what can you do?
- survery methods
- disease definitions
- detection methods
What is valid?
it measures what it says it measure
what is reliable?
- consistent at any time under a variety of conditions
ideal index requires both what?
validity and reliability
caries at one point in time
what is incidence?
individual experiencing new caries in a specific time period
what are trends?
change of differences in prevalence or incidence over time, or location, or socioeconomic.
what are the dental indices?
- Permanent: DMFT = 0-28 or DMFS = 0=128
- Primary: deft = 0-20 or defs = 0-88
- posterior - 5 surfaces
- anterior - 4 surfaces
- exclusion for 3rd molars
what is the limitation of the dental indices?
- not useful for identifying treatment needs
- indices don't account for sealted teeth
- indices don't relate to teeth at risk
- gives equal weight to missing, untreated, or well-restored teeth
- don't account for teeth lost for other reasons (ortho or perio disease)
what are the exclusions for the dental indices?
- 3rd molars
- unerupted teeth
- congenitally missing or supernumeray teeth
- teeth lost not to caries
- retained primary teeth
What is NHANES ?
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
What are the decay patterns of permanent teeth?
- 5 x occlusal caries = interproximal (MD)
- 2.5 x BL caries = interproximal (MD)
what is the decay pattersn of primary teeth?
- occlusal caries = interproximal
- only slightly greater than BL
DMF ______ with age because people are missing more teeth.
Females have greater DMF scores because ______.
- they seek treatment more
about ______% of ppl greater than 18 yrs old exhibit root caries.
root caries lesions increase/decrease with age, related to root exposure, medications, and numbers of retained teeth.
What is ICDAS?
- a system of caries detection/ assessment relfecting current scientific understanding of carious process
- coronal caries
- root caries
- caries adjacent to restorations or sealants
how to score an early carious lesion?
- not yet cavitated
- appears as a discolored fissure w/o loss of substance
- white spot
- radiographically an interproximal shadow
- not all lesions progress to dentinal lesions
cost of dental care is about _____% of total health care costs. (it is decreasing)
use of fluoride have saved ______ between 1960 and 2000